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Human Beings


  • Human have five basic senses, namely sigh, smell, taste and feeling or touch
  • The organs associated with each senses send informations to the brain to help us understand and perceive the world around us.

Functions of sense organs

These organs include;

  • Tongue  – for taste
    • Ears for hearing
    • Nose for smell
    • Skin – for feeling or touch

Cares for various sense organs

  • Bathing daily with soap and clean water
    • Applying oil to keep the skin moist
    • Brushing tongue and teeth when cleaning the mouth
    • Keeping the nose clean by using the handkerchief.
    • Clean the ears using cotton buds.
    • By no putting sharp objects into the nose or ears.


Parts of a human skeleton

  • The human body is a complex design made of various system and structures
  • The parts that make the human skeleton are the skull, the rib cage and the smooth muscles.

Functions of human skeleton

This is the structure made of bones, cartilages and connective tissues; it serves the following functions;

  • The skull protects the brain from injuries
    • Backbone provides support to the body and helps the body to remain upright
    • It also makes the person flexible.
  • It is also known as human spine
  • It is made up  of 33 bones called the vertebrae . these bones stretches from the neck to the pelvis and protect the spinal cord.
  • The backbone provides support to the body,allowing the body to stand , bend or twist.
  • The backbone also protect the brain and the body

The rib cage protects the  heart and the lungs

  • It is made up of curved bones called lungs
    • It is found in the chest area
    • It protects a person’s internal organs  from damage and gives structures to the test.
    • Most human beings have 12 pairs of rib bones

The limbs bones support the weight of the human body.

They also help a person to move

  • There are 30 bones in each lower limps(leg) these are,

Femur – is a single bon of the thigh, its rounded head connects with the hip socket to form the hip join. There ae 30 bones in each upper limb (arm)

The humerus is the single bone of the upper arm and the ulna and the radius are the paired bones of the forearms.

  • Tibia
  • Fibula
  • Seven tarsal bones
  • Five metarsal bones and 14 phalanges

Types of muscles

It is a tissue that functions as a source of power

It is a bundle of fibrous tissue in a human or animal body that can contract, producing movements in the body maintaining the position of the part of the body.

The human body has three types of muscles

Cardiac muscles – these muscles make up the mass of the heart and are responsible for the heart’s rhythmic contractions.

Skeleton muscles – they connect to and control the motions of the human skeleton. They are found between the bones and use tendons to connect to bones. They are controlled voluntarily and are concerned with movement, posture and balance of human body.

Smooth muscles – are control involuntarily. They are found in the walls of blood vessels ,urinary bladder , the intestine and stomach

Functions of skeleton muscles (voluntary muscles)

  •  support  and help the body move
  • Control the body temperature
  • Keep the body upright
  • Protect the organs of the body



  • System – the human body is like a factory that is made of many parts. These parts work in groups called system
  • The breathing system has both visible parts such as the nose, internal parts such as the trachea, lungs and diaphragm. These parts work together to enable human being to breathe.
  • Functions of breathing system
  • Breathing – this is the mechanism of taking air and blowing out air.\
  • Air blow from outside into the nose through nostril. The nose has tiny hairs that clean the air by trapping dusts. At the back of the nose these is membrane that produces mucus which makes the air moist, warm and clean.
  • The trachea is called windpipe, it receives air from the nose,it has C- shaped ring that keep it strong and open. The walls of the windpipe have mucus and tiny hairs that filter air and keep it clean. The trachea acts as a passage for air from the nose into the lungs
  • A human being has two lungs

Membrane that produces mucus, which makes the air moist, warm and clean.

  • The trachea is also called the windpipe. It receives air from the nose. It has C- shaped rings that keep it strong and open. The walls of the windpipe have mucus and tiny hairs that filter the air and keep it clean. The trachea acts as passage for air, from the nose into the lungs
  • A human being has two lungs located inside the chest. The lungs are a pair of air-filled organs. The lungs take in the oxygen in the air and take out carbon dioxide that the body does not need.
  • The diaphragm is located under the lungs. It controls breathing. It separates the chest from the abdomen. It helps to fill the lungs with air when breathing in. It also helps to take out air when breathing out.
  • Breathing is essential for the living process of human beings to continue.
Diseases that affect the human breathing system

The human breathing system is affected by many diseases. They include:

1.  Tuberculosis (TB)

Is a disease that affects the breathing system. It mainly affects the lungs. TB is caused by bacteria. It spreads from one person to another through sneezing, coughing or spitting.

Signs and symptoms of TB
  • Night sweats
  • Coughing up blood
  • Unintentional weight loss
  • Coughing that last for three or more weeks
  • Chest pain or pain when breathing or coughing
Prevention of TB               
  • Staying dust free, well-ventilated rooms
    • Vaccinating infants

Covering the mouth when sneezing

Wearing a mask in public if you are already infected

An infected person should finish his or her entire course of medication

2.  Pneumonia

Is caused by germs such as bacteria and viruses. It can also be called fungi.

Signs and symptoms of Pneumonia
  • Chest pains when breathing or coughing
    • Cough that may produce mucus
    • Sweating and shaking
    • Nausea, vomiting or diarrhoea
    • Fatigue
    • Shortness of breath
    • Fever
Prevention of Pneumonia
  • Vaccination against pneumonia
    • Keeping immune system strong
    • Practicing good hygiene
    • Not smoking

Colds are caused by a virus. The virus affects the nose and the throat. Children under the age of six years are at greatest risk of getting it.

Signs and symptoms

Running or stuffy nose

Congestion in the nose


Mild fever and generally feeling unwell

Sore throat and cough


Prevention of colds

  • Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and clean water.
  • Disinfecting items
  • Covering the mouth when coughing or sneezing
  • Avoid sharing utensils

Is a disease that narrows and swells the airways in the lungs, producing extra mucus. This makes breathing difficult. Being exposed to substances such as pollen, dust mites, infections such as common cold, cold air, pollutants such as smoke, strong emotions and some kinds of medications can cause asthma.

Signs and symptoms of asthma

  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pains
  • A whistling sound when breathing out Prevention of asthma
  • Getting vaccinated for influenza na pneumonia
  • Identifying and avoiding asthma triggers
  • Monitoring your breathing
  • Treating early attacks
  • Taking medication as prescribed by the doctor.
  • Carefully following your medication plan.


Can be caused by smoke exposure, infections, asthma and presence of mucus in the throat.

Signs and symptoms

  • Frequent throat clearing and sore throat
  • Wheezing and shortness of breath
  • Persistent coughing
  • Running nose
  • Hoarse voice

Prevention of coughs

  • Avoiding smoke particles and dusty places
  • Avoiding smoking
  • Drinking a lot of water
  • Avoiding unhealthy surroundings and crowded places

It is commonly called the flu. It is caused by a virus. The flu is transmitted through the air in droplets when someone with the infection coughs, sneezes or talks.

Signs and symptoms of influenza
  • A high fever
  • Chills and sweats
  • Dry and persistent cough
  • Nose congestions
  • Aching muscles
  • Headache
  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Sore throat

Prevention of influenza

  • Yearly flu vacation for any person who is six months old and above.
  • Thorough and frequent hand-washing
  • Covering your mouth and nose when sneezing or coughing
  • Avoiding crowds during peak flu season.

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID – 19)

  • COVID-19 is a disease of the breathing system. It is caused by a virus, known as coronavirus. The virus looks like a round ball with a spiky crown.
  • When an infected person sneezes or coughs, tiny droplets are spread into the air. These droplets contain the virus.
  • One can get infected if he or she touches a surface with the virus. The virus enters a person’s system if one touches their nose, eyes or mouth

Signs and symptoms of COVID-19

  • Fever
    • Dry cough
    • Sore throat
    • Headache
    • Tiredness
    • Loss of taste or smell

Prevention of COVID-119

  • Wash your hands well frequently for at least 20 seconds with soap and running water. If soap and water are not available, use an alcohol- based hand sanitizer.
    • Use a handkerchief or tissue when sneezing or coughing. If you do not have one, sneeze or cough into your elbow.
    • Avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth
    • Clean and disinfect surfaces and objects.
    • During an outbreak, stay home. If you need to go out put on the right face mask
  • During an outbreak, keep social distance of about 2 metres from other people
    • If you feel sick, tell your parents or guardians. You will be taken to see a doctor. You will be put on treatment.

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