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  • Theterm living thing refers to things that are now or once were alive
  • living thing pertains to any organism or a life form that possesses or shows thecharacteristics of life or being alive


  • Plantsare living
  • The grouping of plants together with common characteristics or features is called theclassification of plants.


Identifying different types of plants

Pupil’s activity Page 1

To observe the different types of plants

Pupil’s activity Page 1

To identify different types of plants found in the locality

Pupil’s activity Page 2-3


  1. Trees
  • Arebig plants
  • Theyhave single stem called trunk and many strong branches
  • Examplesof tress include mango, coconut and avocado trees
  1. Shrubs
  • Areshorter than tress
  • Theyhave many thin and woody stems
  • Examples ofshrubs include hibiscus, rose and cotton plants

  1. Shrubs
  • Aresmall plants with soft green stems
  • Examplesof herbs include mint and coriander
  1. Grass
  • Isshort and has narrow leaves

Parts ofaplant

Identifying different parts of a plant 

To name different parts of a plant

Pupil’s activity Page 3

To identify different parts of plants growing in the environment

Pupil’s activity Page 3-4

To draw different parts of a plant

Pupil’s activity Page 5

  • Theexternal parts of a plant include
    1. Roots
    2. Stem
    3. Leaves
    4. Flowers
    5. Fruits


To discuss the functions of different parts of a plant Pupil’s activity

Page 6

Part of a plantFunction

Functions of the roots

  1. Support/hold/anchor theplant firmly in the soil

The roots absorb water and mineral salts from soil through a process called absorption Plants need water and mineral salts for proper growth

  1. Absorptionof water and mineral salts

The roots hold the plants firmly in the soil

This ensures that the plants are not carried away by water or wind

  1. Foodstorage

Some plants such as arrowroots, cassava and carrots store food in the roots

Functions of the stem Stem 

  1. Transports water and mineral salts from the roots to the leavesCarries food made by the leaves to the roots for storage
  2. Holdsor supports the upper parts of the plant in good position
  3. Protectsthe plant
  4. Storageof water- some plants such as a cactus store water in the stem
  5. Somestems store food and water for the plant

N.B. Plants that store food in the stem are called stem tubers. Examples of plants that store food in the stem are: a) Cactus b) Sugar cane c) Irish potato

To investigate the absorption and transport of water and mineral salts in a plant

Pupil’s activity Page 7-8


  1. Breathing– Exchange of gases through small tiny holes called
  1. Manufactureof food

Leaves make food for the plant using chlorophyll, sunlight, water and carbon (IV) oxide through a process called Photosynthesis – Process of making its own food Requirements of photosynthesis are:- Chlorophyll – green colouring matter Water Carbon dioxide Sunlight

  1. Storageof food – Edible vegetables such as kales, cabbages, spinach
  1. Removalof excess water through transpiration

Transpiration – Process in which plants lose excess water through small holes called stomata. Transpiration is high when it is hot, sunny, dry, windy. It is low when it’s cold, wet, calm and rainy.


  • Flowersare the reproductive organs of plants
  • Theydevelop into fruits
  • It bears fruits which contains seeds that germinate into a new plant Seeds germinateinto new young plants called seedlings


  1. Storage offood

Some plants like avocados, mangos and orange store food in fruits

  1. Protectingseeds

In most plants, seeds are found inside fruits The fruits protect the seeds from drying


When seeds germinate, they grow into new plants

To investigate transpiration in plants

Pupil’s activity Page 9


Pupils activities  Page 10-11


There are two main types of roots

  1. Taproot – extension of stem with side roots
  2. Fibrousroots-many similar roots

To observe taproots and fibrous roots

  1. Pupil’sactivity Page 13
  2. Tocollect plants with different types of roots
  3. Pupil’sactivity Page 13
TaprootsFibrous roots
They consist of one main root that grows down into the soilThey have lateral roots that arise from the main rootThey do not have a main rootAll roots are similar and they arise from the same place
They grow deep into the soilThey are shallow
They grow vertically downwards into soilThey grow horizontally in all directions
Plants with tap roots include:-Legumes, Acacia, Fruit trees,Plants with fiirous roots include:- Cereals, Oats, Grass, Sisal, Onions, Sugarcane,Coconuts

Groupingplantsbasedonthetypeofroots theyhave

Pupil’s activity Page 16


Other types of roots include:

  1. Aerialroots – for breathing
  2. Proproots – used in maize for support


Pupil’s activity Page 17 -18




Animals are classifiee into 2 main groups that is:-


Are animals without backbone Examples

  1. Bees
  2. Flies
  3. Grasshopper
  4. Earthworm
  5. Lobster
  6. Snail
  7. Millipeee
  8. Fleas

Safety precautions toobservewhilehandling invertebrates

Pupil’s activity Page 22-23

  1. Do not touch the invertebrates. Some can sting or produce substances thatcan irritate the skin
  2. Donot kill the invertebrates
  3. Donot destroy the areas where the invertebrates live
  4. Do not remove the invertebrates from where they live


Pupil’s activity Page 23-24


Pupil’s activity Page 23-24

Name of the invertebrateWhere it was found


To discuss the characteristics of invertebrates

Pupil’s activity Page 25

Name of theinvertebrateNumberof wingsNumberof legsNumber offeelersNumber ofeyesHow it moves


Pupil’s activity Page 2

Name of the insectNumberof body partsNumber of wingsNumber of legsNumber ofantenannaeHow it moves
1. Louse
2. bees
3. butterflies
4. termites
5. mosquito


  1. Insectshave 3 body parts  Head, 2. Thorax, 3. Abdomen
  2. Insectshave 3 pairs of legs
  3. Most insects have 2 pairs of wings.They use the wing for flying

Some insects such as beetles and ants do not have wings

  1. Insectshave a pair of antennae on top of their

Antennae are also known as feelers

Antennae are long, thin and are used for sensing.

  1. Thebody of an insect has a hard covering called exoskeleton

Characteristics of spiders and ticks

To discuss the characteristics of spiders and tick

Pupil’s activity Page 28-29

  1. Spidersand ticks have 2 body parts
  2. Spidersand ticks have 4 pairs of legs
  3. Spidersand ticks do not have wings
  4. Spidersand ticks do not have antennae

Characteristics of snails and slugs

To discuss characteristics of snails and slugs

Pupil’s activity Page 29-30

  1. Snailsand slugs have soft body
  2. Snailsand slugs do not have wings
  3. Snails and slugs have 2 pairs of feelers on their heads.The feelers are also called receptacles
  4. Snails and slays move by crawling on slimy mucus using the muscular footThe slimy mucus is produced by muscular foot

Snails have shells while slugs do not have shells.


To discuss characteristics of centiiedes and milliiedes

Pupil’s activity Page 30-31

  1. Centipedesand miillipedes aie 2 bodty sections– ad and iruuns
  2. Teiruuns of boi miillipedes and centipedes is diiide inio mianty sections called segment
  3. Centipedesand miillipedes aie mianty pairus of legs.
  • Centipedesaie one pairu of legs peru segmieni, one leg on eac side of ie bodty.
  • Millipedeshave two pairs of legs per
  • The legs arepositioned under the body
  • Millipedescoil body when disturbed
  1. Centipedeshave one pair of antennae on the head

Importanceofinvertebrates tohumanbeings

  1. Source of food

Some insects such as termites are used as food by some people Bees produce honey which is used as food

  1. Pollination

Most flowering plants are pollinated by insects Pollination enables to produce seeds

  1. Cleaningthe environment

Some invertebrates such as millipede feed on decaying matter turning it into compost. This helps to clean up the environment

The compost makes soil good for growing crops

NB Some invertebrates are harmful to human beings


Pupil’s activity Page 32-33


  • Bloodcirculates throughout the body in a system known as the circulatory system
  • Theheart, blood and the blood vessel make up the circulatory system
  • Theheart is a muscular organ that pumps blood to all parts of the  Blood circulates around the body in blood vessels
  • Bloodis a body fluid that is used in the transportation of substances within the
  • Bloodvessels are tubes in which blood flows

The main blood vessels are the arteries, veins and capillaries

Main Parts of Human Circulatory System

  • The circulatory system is important because it is involved in the transport of thefollowing substances in the
    • Oxygenfrom the lungs to all parts of the body
    • Digestedfood from the small intestines to all parts of the body
    • Carbondioxide from the body to the lungs where it is breathed out.
    • Heat from the liver to all parts of the body. This helps to regulate bodytemperature

Waste products from different parts of the body to organs such as kidneys to be removed from the body

Parts of the heart and their functions


HEART – This is the organ that pumps blood throughout the body. It is muscular and placed between the lungs somewhere slightly to the left side of the body. The strong muscles of the heart can relax or contract when contracting the heart pumps blood with force. When the heart relaxes, the blood flows into chambers of the heart

  • Theheart has 4
  • Theupper chambers are known as auricles and the lower chambers are known as


  • Theheart has 2 auricles, the left auricle and the right auricle and 2 ventricles and the

right ventricle and the left ventricle.

  • Auriclehave thinner walls than ventricles
  • Thefunction of the heart is to pump blood to all parts of the body
  • Auricles receiveblood from body organs and then empty it into the
  • Theventricles then pump blood to the lungs and to other parts of the body
  • Theheart has valves that prevent blood from flowing backwards

Theheartisconnectedtobloodvessels Pumpingoftheheart

  1. The right auricle receives blood from the bodyThe blood then flows into the right ventricle

This blood does not have oxygen and is called deoxygenated blood

  1. The right ventricle pumps the deoxygenated blood into the left into lungs throughthe pulmonary

In lungs, the blood receives oxygen and becomes oxygenated blood.

  1. The oxygenated blood flows from the lungs into the left auricle of the heart throughthe pulmonary vein

The blood then flows into the left ventricle

  1. The left ventricle then pumps the oxygenated blood to all parts of the body(except thelungs) through the aorta

The left ventricle has thick muscular walls because they pump blood to all parts of the body

  1. Theheart has valves which prevent blood from flowing backwards

Types of blood vessels and their functions Blood vessels are tubes that carry blood around the body. The main blood vessels in the body are

  1. Arteries
  2. Capillaries
  3. Veins


  • Arterieshave thick elastic walls
  • Arteries havea narrow lumen

Lumen is the space inside a tube such as a blood vessel

  • Arteries carryblood away from the heart to the parts f the body
  • Arteries carry oxygenated blood except the pulmonary artery which carriesdeoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs
  • Blood in arteries flow under high pressure because it is pumped from the heart intothe arteries at high pressure.

This high pressure can be felt in the arteries as a beat.

We can determine the number of times the heart beats in a minute by counting the beats in the arteries

The number of times the heart beat in a minute is called a pulse or a beat rate. The pulse is easiest to find on the wrist and on the neck.

To check the pulse at the wrist

Pupil’s activity Page 41-42

NamePulse at restPulse after jumping

NB: the pulse increased after jumping

  • Thepulse rate of a healthy person at rest is between 60-100 beats per minute
  • Pulseincreased during an activity
  • This because during activity, the body needs more oxygen and so the heart pumpsblood faster to supply the body with more


  1. Veinshave thin walls
  2. Veinshave a wide lumen
  3. Veinshave valves to ensure blood flows only in one direction
  4. Veinscarry blood towards the heart
  5. Veins carry deoxygenated blood except the pulmonary vein that carries oxygenatedblood from the lungs to the

Valve A shows a vein with open valve to allow blood to pass through it while valve B shows a vein with closed valve to prevent blood from flowing backwards


  1. Capillarieshave very thin walls
  2. Capillarieshave no valves
  3. Capillaries reachevery part of the

They allow movements of oxygen and food nutrients from blood into the body.

They also allow the movement of carbon dioxide and other wastes from the body into the blood


Components of blood and their functions

To find out the components of blood

Pupil’s activity Page 43-44

To study the components of blood

Pupil’s activity Page 44


The four main components of blood are:

  1. Plasma
  2. Redblood cells
  3. Whiteblood cells
  4. Platelets

1. Plasma

It is the liquid part that forms the main part of the blood It is mostly pale yellow.

It contains dissolved substances e.g. digested food, salts, amino acids and glucose.


Transportation of:

  1. Digestedfood from the ileum to all parts of the
  2. Oxygenfrom the lungs to all body
  3. Carbondioxide from body cells to the lungs to be
  4. Wasteproducts to the organs of
  5. Heatfrom the liver to all parts of the body.
  6. Hormonesfrom the glands to where they are needed.
  7. Other blood components e.g. white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets to where theyare needed

Red blood cells

-Biconcave in shape.

  • Containhaemoglobin (Red colouring matter).
  • Havenucleus which disappears on
  • Producedin red bone marrow
  • Destroyed(broken) in the liver/spleen.
  • Redblood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the body
  • Oxygen combines with haemoglobin to form oxyhaemoglobin –oxygenated blood, which isbright red in colour (dark red)

White blood cells

  • Largerthan red blood cells
  • Fewin number compared to red blood cells i.e. ratio of white to red blood cells is 1:600
  • Haveno definite shape- they change their shape easily
  • Havea nucleus at the centre
  • Producedin the yellow bone marrow and the lymph glands

N.B. White blood cells fight and kill germs by engulfing them.

d) Platelets

  • Theyare tiny oval shaped cells
  • Theyare found in plasma
  • Helpthe blood to clot when injured.
  • Theyprevent further loss of the blood from the part that was  They help to stop bleeding from cuts and wounds.


  • Bloodgroup is the type of blood a person
  • TheABO blood group system is one of the ways of grouping
  • Inthe ABO blood group system, there are 4 main blood groups
  • Theseare
  1. Bloodgroup A
  2. Bloodgroup B
  3. Bloodgroup AB
  4. Bloodgroup O


  • Itis the process by which blood from one person is added to another person
  • Theperson who gives blood is called
  • Theperson who receives blood is known as
  • Blood transfusion is done to help restore blood in people who have lost a lot of blooddue to injuries or disease
  • Before a blood transfusion is done it is important to know the blood group of bothdonor and the
  • This is to ensure that compatible, that is it can mix without the red blood callsclumping together (agglutination) in the receipt’s
  • Clumpingtogether of red blood cells can be dangerous

Compatibility of blood group

Blood group ABlood group A and ABBlood group A and bloodgroup O
Blood group BBlood group B and blood group ABBlood group B and Bloodgroup O
Blood group ABBlood group ABAll groups
Blood group OAll groupsBlood group o


  • A person with blood group O can donate blood to people of all the other blood

People with blood group O are referred to as universal donor

  • Aperson with blood group AB can receive blood from all the blood groups and is therefore referred to as universal recipient.

To make models of different components of blood

Pupil’s activity Page 48-49


Living things have organs that enable them to reproduce. These organs form the reproductive system

This part presents two kinds of reproductive system, namely female and male reproductive systems.

Parts andfunctionsofthefemalereproductivesystem

To discuss the parts and functions of the female productive system

Pupil’s activity Page 50-51

The system by which human beings are enabled to produce young ones is called female

reproductive system. The system consists of different parts. These include:

  1. Vagina
  2. Cervix
  3. Uterus
  4. Ovariesand
  5. Fallopian

Definition and functions of the major parts of the female reproductive system

1. Ovary

  • Theyare mall oval shaped glands that are located on either side of the uterus
  • They produce egg cells called ova in a process called ovulation. When released theeggs enter into the oviduct
  • Theyproduce hormones

2. Oviduct

  • Alsocalled fallopian tube
  • Theoviduct is a tube that connects the ovary to the uterus
  • Itis the place where fertilization of the egg by the sperm takes place

3. Uterus

  • Alsoknown as womb
  • Theplace where the fertilized egg develops into a foetus

4. Cervix

  • Itconnects the vagina with the uterus
  • Itproduces mucus that facilitates the entry of sperms
  • Itopens to allow passage of a baby from the uterus into the vagina during childbirth

5. Vagina

  • Alsoknown as birth canal
  • Itis an elastic tube that extends from the vaginal opening (vulva) to the cervix
  • Itreceives semen during intercourse
  • Itis the birth canal through which the body passes during birth

Parts andfunctionofthemalereproductive system

To discuss the parts and functions of the male reproductive system

Pupil’s activity Page 52-53

Male Reproductive System consists of various parts. These include

  1. Penis
  2. Testis
  3. urethra,
  4. Gland– Prostate gland, seminal vesicles and the Cowper’s gland

Definition andfunctionsofthe majorpartsofthemalereproductivesystem

  1. Penis
  • Itis the male sex organ
  • Tubelike structure through which sperms are released
  • Ittransfers sperm into the female reproductive system during intercourse
  • Alsoin this structure urine is passed outside the

2. Testicle or testis/testes

  • Testis is oval shaped and is enclosed within a structure called scrotum which hangsoutside the body
  • Testisproduces sperms and hormones

3. Urethra

  • Theurethra is a tube that runs through the penis
  • It isa passage of sperms and urine out of the body
  1. Gland
  • Theglands produce a fluid as seminal fluid
  • Spermcells depend on seminal fluid to move and to keep them alive
  • Themixture of seminal fluid and sperm is called semen

5. Sperm duct

  • Atube that allows the sperm to pass from testis to the urethra


  • The period in a persons’ life when developing from a child into an adult is referred toas
  • Thestage is usually between the age of 12 and 19
  • Duringthis time many changes take place in terms of growth and physical
  • Physicalchanges are changes that are visible
  • Theboy or girl who is undergoing this change is called adolescent

Physical Changes in Boys during adolescence

  1. Broaderchest and shoulders
  2. Breakingvoice to become deeper
  3. Thepenis, testes and scrotum enlarge
  4. Growing of hair in part of the body (around sex organs, pubic hair, chest hair, beardson the face and armpits.
  5. Sperms mature in the testis experiences ejaculation, which is release of spermsthrough  At times this can happen during the night and is called wet dreams.
  6. Boyseat more because height and weight are increasing and becoming muscular
  7. Attimes development of pimples on the face may occur


  1. Growthof breasts
  2. Hairgrows in the armpits and around sex organs(pubic hair)
  3. Hipsbecome broader,
  4. Release an egg by ovaries after 28 days (ovulation). This happens if the egg(ovum) isnot fertilized. The lining that had been formed in the uterus along with the egg breaks down and flows out of the body through vagina as blood. This process is called  It occurs once a month and may last 4-5 days,
  5. Pimples mayappear on the face
  6. Rapidincrease of weight and heights and may cause them to eat more

NB: Apart from physical changes, adolescents undergo other changes that affect their feelings and behaviour towards other people.

These changes are known as emotional changes


Moods: Hormones lead to mood changes that an adolescent cannot explain.

This might bring misunderstanding between the adolescent and other people. They become unreasonably aggressive, angry, easily disappointed etc.

Shyness: Girls feel shy about their enlarging breasts or pimples on their face. Boys are shy about their cracking voice.

Embarrassment: Girls are embarrassed about their menstrual flow. Boys about their wet dreams

Unhappy: Boys and girls feel unhappy with the size and shape of their bodies.

Worry: Both tend to worry about their appearance, especially when pimples develop on the face, a condition known as Acne.

Girls who start their menstrual flow late or have small breasts tend to worry about themselves. They may feel abnormal.


  1. Development ofnew identity

This makes adolescent try out new clothing styles, listen to new music and develop new friendships all in a bid to behave like adults

  1. Development ofvalues

This makes adolescent question things.

They therefore seem like they are rebelling against established rules

  1. Desirefor independence

This makes adolescents want to make their own decisions like how to spend their free time or how to spend their money

  1. Increasedpeer influence

This influences adolescent’s behaviour and mode of dressing Adolescents want to be important and recognised by their friends

  1. Development ofinterest in the other gender leading to relationships
  2. Increasedinfluence from  The internet greatly influences adolescents


  1. Sexually transmitted infections (STI) and diseases usually pass from one person toanother through sexual contact

AIDS, Syphilis and Gonorrhoea are some of examples of sexually transmitted infections

  1. Adolescents need to practise good hygiene fo their well being and for those aroundthem
  2. Teenage pregnancy can increased health risks for newborns as well as for the youngmothers
  3. The use of alcohol and other drugs can lead to addition, failure in school and poorjudgement which may put adolescents at risk of accidents and suicide
  4. Adolescentsare encouraged to share their feelings when they feel




Conservation of water means the proper care and use of water and water sources. Conserving water ensures it’s spared for future use.

To discuss the meaning of water conservation

Pupil’s activity Page 61


To find out how water is conserved in the locality

Pupil’s activity Page 62


  1. Harvestingrainwater
  2. Recyclingthe use of water
  3. Re-using
  4. Usingwater sparingly
  5. Mulching/shading
  6. Storingwater in dams/constructions of dams
  7. Reducingthe use of water


  • Reusingwater means using water that has already used
  • Waterwhich has already been used can be used for another purpose
  • Thefollowing are some ways in which water can be reused
  1. Waterused to wash clothes can be used to flush the toilet, cleaning houses
  2. Water used for cleaning fruits and vegetables can be used again for watering crops onthe farm
  3. Waterused for washing clothes can be sprinkled on earthen floors to reduce dust
  4. Waterused for washing hands can be used to mop floors

This is paragraph 2 for posts without the target word.

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