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  • Inclusive education is about looking at the ways our schools, classrooms, programs and lessons are designed so that all children can participate and learn. Inclusion is also about finding different ways of teaching so that classrooms actively involve all children. It also means finding ways to develop friendships, relationships and mutual respect between all children, and between children and teachers in the school. Inclusion is a philosophy based on the belief that all learners are respected for their unique capabilities and should be an integral part of learning within the regular classroom. Inclusion ensures equitable access to learning for those learners identified with special needs and requires necessary resources, to support their learning with other learners.  
  • Placement of learners to other educational settings must be justified on basis of individual learning needs. Inclusive education needs to be a collaborative effort among parents/ guardians, teachers, community and government. Inclusive education is carried out in a common learning environment; that is, an educational setting where students from different backgrounds and with different abilities learn together in an inclusive environment.

Differences Between Equity and equality

Equality means each individual or group of people is given the same resources or opportunities. Equity recognizes that each person has different circumstances and allocates the exact resources and opportunities needed to reach an equal outcome.

“The route to achieving equity will not be accomplished through treating everyone equally. It will be achieved by treating everyone justly according to their circumstances.” —Paula Dressel, Race Matters Institute

What does Equality mean?

 The word equality is defined as “the state or quality of being equal; correspondence in quantity, degree, value, rank, or ability.” 3 Equality is usually simple to understand: three buckets that all contain five apples are in a state of equality. They all have exactly the same amount of the exact same items. Under the law, Americans have equality in the sense that nobody can be legally denied their rights based on any personal quality. The word equity is defined as “the quality of being fair or impartial; fairness; impartiality” or “something that is fair and just.”

 Equity is more complicated than equality. The complication with equity is that people often disagree on what is “just” or “fair.” These are subjective concepts and, as a result, laws and policies that attempt to achieve equity are often challenged in court or are controversial. The use of the word equity has increased due to concerns about social justice and a desire for fairness for historically oppressed groups. In the law, minority groups may have equal rights but are still treated unfairly. Historically oppressed groups such as LGBTQ+ people, Black people, and Indigenous peoples have not only fought for equality, but continue to fight for equity in society.

Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligence

Howard Gardner of Harvard University first came up with the theory of multiple intelligences in 1983. Gardner argues that there are eight types of intelligence, far more than the standard I.Q. test can account for.

He goes on to say that these multiple intelligences “challenge an educational system that assumes that everyone can learn the same materials in the same way and that a uniform, universal measure suffices to test student learning.”

Gardner argues that schools and teachers should teach in a way that supports all types of intelligence, not just the traditional ones such as linguistic and logical intelligence.

Gardner argues that schools and teachers should teach in a way that supports all types of intelligence, not just the traditional ones such as linguistic and logical intelligence.

The Eight Bits of Intelligence

1. Linguistic Intelligence (“word smart”)

2. Logical-Mathematical Intelligence (“number/reasoning smart”)

3. Visual-Spatial Intelligence (“picture smart”)

4. Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence (“body smart”)

5. Musical Intelligence (“music smart”)

6. Interpersonal Intelligence (“people smart”)

7. Intrapersonal Intelligence (“self smart”)

8. Naturalist Intelligence (“nature smart”)

How can a teacher tell that a particular learn has a particular kind of intelligence?

1. Linguistic intelligence

They have the ability to use the language to express themselves and assign meaning through poetry, humor, metaphors and stories

2. Logical-Mathematical Intelligence

They have the ability to reason, work with abstract symbols, recognize patterns, and see connections between separate pieces of information.

3.     Visual-Spatial Intelligence

They visualize objects from different perspectives and in different ways, use objects within space, form mental images, and think in three-dimensions.

4.      Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence

Have the ability to use the body to express emotion, play games, or create new products. They learn by doing.

5.      Musical Intelligence

Have greater knowledge of and sensitivity to tone, rhythm, pitch, and melody. They are sensitive to the human voice, audio patterns, and sounds in the environment.

6.      Interpersonal Intelligence

They work with others and communicate effectively with others both verbally and nonverbally. It involves the ability to notice distinctions in others’ moods, temperaments, intentions, and motivations.

7.      Intrapersonal Intelligence

They have knowledge of the self in ways such as feelings, a range of emotional responses, and intuition about spirituality. They are conscious of the unconscious and to discern higher patterns of connection between things in our world.

8.      Naturalist Intelligence

They discern, comprehend, and appreciate plants, animals, the atmosphere, and the earth. They care for animals, live off the land, classify species, and understand systems in nature.

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