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Food is what we eat or drink for energy and growth


  • Minerals are those elements on the earth and in foods that our bodies need to develop and function normally.
  • Micro nutrients are minerals required in small amounts in our bodies.
  • Mineralsneeded for proper functioning of the body are also called essential minerals.
  • Minerals help our bodies to develop and function normally
  • Minerals also protect our bodies against diseases

Different minerals found in foods

  • The foods we consume have different minerals that our bodies need to function well.
  • Some of the minerals include
    • Iodine
    • Calcium
    • Iron
    • Sodium chloride
    • Zinc
    • Magnesium

Sources of iron and iodine found in foods in the locality

Foods rich in ironFoods rich in iodine
SpinachIodized salt
BroccoliBeef liver
LiverDairy (milk, cheese, yoghurt)
Red meatFish (tuna, oysters)
Turkey meatSeaweed
Legumes – peasCrab 
Pumpkin seeds 

Importance of iron and iodine in the body

  • Iodine is important mineral that our thyroid needs to produce certain hormones
  • A thyroid is a gland found in the neck. It produces hormones that regulate growth and development
  • Not getting enough iodine can cause goitre
  • Iodine also improves our defence against infections and regulates body functions
  • Iodine also helps develop the brain
  • Iron forms haemoglobin, a red blood cell protein whose main purpose is to transport oxygen in the blood.
  • Iron strengthens the body’s protective system against viruses, bacteria and infections.
  • Intake of iron helps prevent iron deficiency anaemia. (adolescent girls are encouraged to eat foods rich in iron to replace iron lost during menstruation to prevent anaemia).

Planning a meal that includes minerals in the diet

  • It is important to include foods rich in minerals in the diet while planning for meals.
  • This ensures all meals provide essential minerals need by the body.

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Daily log of foods eaten rich in iron and iodine

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 When you create a daily log of foods eaten rich in iron and iodine it will help you asses what you are eating is rich in the two essential minerals.

Day of the weekIron and iodine rich foods
Monday Ugali, liver, manage and pawpaw

Preservation and storage of meat

  • Food preservation is the process or technique used to maintain food in good condition in order to stop or slow down spoilage.
  • This will prevent food borne illness as well as maintain nutritional value and flavour of the food
  • This reduces food wastage.
  • The food that is preserved is kept properly for use in the future 

Source of meat in the locality

  • Meat is flesh from animals eaten as food.
  • Most common sources of meat are from animals i.e. cow, sheep, chicken, fish

Importance of preserving and storing meat

  • Meat is highly perishable food that spoils within a short time therefore proper preservation and storage is essential
  • Preserving meat maintains its nutritional value.
  • Preserving meat keeps it longer for future use ü Prevents meat from getting spoil ü Meat preservation prevents wastage.

Facilities used for preserving and storing meat

  1. Drying rack 
  2. Hook
  3. Refrigerator/Fridge 
  4. Freezer 
  5. Airtight food containers 

 Methods and procedure of preserving and storing meat

  1. Refrigeration
  2. Sun drying
  3. Salting
  4. Smoking


  • Meat is preserved through refrigeration where is kept under low temperature.
  • Refrigerator has cooling and freezing compartments.
  • Meat kept in the cooling compartments of the refrigerator keeps fresh for a short time while the freezing compartments keeps meat fresh for a longer time.


Fresh meat, chopping board, clean water, refrigerator and a plastic container

Procedure for preserving meat using a refrigerator

  1. Clean the meat
  2. Cut the meat into pieces
  3. Pack in a plastic container
  4. Cover the plastic container
  5. Store the meat in a refrigerator

Advantages of refrigeration

  1. It slows down the growth of bacteria that spoils the meat.
  2. Much of the meats flavour is retained

Disadvantage of refrigeration 1. It normally requires electricity.

  • Food persevered in a refrigerator goes bad if there is unreliable supply of electricity
  • Refrigeration is expensive

Sun drying

  • In this method of preservation, the sun provides the heat to dry the meat.
  • Meat for preservation can either be hung under the sun in an open area or spread on a clean food drying rack
  • Protect the meat from insects and animals using a screened cage.


Fresh meat, chopping board, clean water, screened cage, drying rack, hook, muslin cloth

Free Grade 6 Homescience Notes

 Procedure for preserving meat using sun drying

  1. Use fresh and lean meat
  2. Clean the meat
  3. Cut the meat into strips
  4. Place the meat on S hook and hung the hooks in a screened cage. A string can be used to hang meat
  5. Meat can be placed on a raised food drying rock. Cover the meat with a muslin cloth or fine wire mesh.
  6. Allow the meat to dry completely on both sides. This may take several days depending on the heat from the sun and wind conditions.
  7. Meat can then be stored in a covered airtight container and kept in a cool dry place away from direct sunlight.
  8. Sun dried meat can be preserved for at least two months. Advantages of preserving meat using sun drying
    1. The method is easy
    1. Sun drying method can be preserved for at least two months

Disadvantages of preserving meat using sun drying

  1. The slow drying process requires patience
  2. Sunny and windy conditions are restricted to weather conditions.


  • This is process of applying salt to meat.
  • Salt prevents the growth of bacteria by removing water content from meat.


Knife, chopping board, screened cage, clean water, hooks, fresh meat, salt, plastic container

Procedure for preserving meat by rubbing it with salt

  1. Get fresh meat
  2. Clean the meat
  3. Cut the meat into moderate pieces
  4. Rub the salt on the meat surface
  5. Use S shaped hooks to hung meat in a screened cage indoors. The equipment keeps insects away
  6. Allow the meat to cure for about 4-7 days

Curing meat refers to preserving meat by adding salt, with the aim of drawing moisture out of the food.

  • if needed, rub some more salt on the meat and continue with the curing process.
  • Store meat correctly after preservation in a cool dry place.
  • Before cooking the salted meat, soak in cold water to dissolve salt.

Procedure for preserving meat using brine

  1. This method is best applied for fresh and fleshy meat
  2. Prepare the brine by dissolving salt in water
  3. Clean the meat
  4. Cut the meat into lean pieces. Place the meat in a clean container
  5. Pour the brine into water. Ensure the meat is completely covered with brine
  6. Leave the meat in brine for at least two days
  7. Drain off brine from the meat. Dispose water appropriately.
  8. Hung brined meat in a screened cage outdoors. Use S shaped hooks to hold the strips.
  9. Store meat correctly after preservation in a clean covered container in cool and dry conditions.

Advantages of preserving meat using salting

  1. Salt is cheap
  2. Salted meat is tender
  3. Nutrients are retained in the meat juices
  4. Salt kills bacteria hence preventing the meat from spoiling 

Disadvantages of preserving meat using salting

  1. Salted meat is unsuitable for people suffering from high blood pressure
  2. Salted meat contributes to weak bones
  3. Salted meat increases the risk of contracting kidney stones. A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in the kidney from substances in the urine. 


Smoking is a method of preserving meat by exposing it to smoke and heat from open fire.


Fresh meat, chopping board, hooks, fire pit, gloves, hammer, nails, dry wood, plastic container, jembe, panga, two poles Procedure for preserving meat using smoking

  1. Use a jembe to dig a shallow pit at a convenient site
  2. With a panga, make a hole on each side of the pit
  3. Erect the 1.5m poles on each hole. Join at the top with with the one 1m pole using nails and a hammer.
  4. Hung several hooks on the 1m pole
  5. Make a fire with the dry wood. Smoke will be created
  6. Cut meat for few hours
  7. Air dry the meat for a few hours
  8. Hung the meat on the S hook over the smoke.
  9. Ensure regular supply of smoke by adding dry wood chips.

10.Smoke the meat completely until dry

11.Store meat correctly after its preservation in a cool dry place.

Advantages of preserving meat using smoking

  1. The smoke coats the meat and keeps off bacteria and fungi
  2. Flavour of the meat is improved
  3. Smoked meat has enhanced aroma and appearance

Disadvantages of preserving meat using smoking

  1. It requires close attention; one should add firewood from time to time to ensure that smoke is continuously emitted.
  2. Too much heat will cook the meat before it is properly smoked.
  3. The process requires close attention and monitoring.

 Using different methods and procedure to prevent meat at home

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Hygiene measures while preserving and storing meat at home

  • Observing hygiene when preserving meat is very important to ensure there is no spoilage of meat
  • Proper hygiene also prevents contamination of food that can easily lead to food borne disease
  • Wash your hands with clean water and soap before handling meat
  • Cut the meat on a clean chopping board

Do not mix different types of meat in one container  Use clean equipment to preserve and store m

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