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Grade 7 Rationalized Pre-Technical Complete Notes Term 1 2 and 3 CBC Junior Secondary


 Components of Pre-Technical Studies as a Learning Area:

  1. Foundations of Pre-Technical Studies:
  • Explanation: Introduction to fundamental concepts and principles related to pre-technical subjects.
    • Example: Understanding safety regulations, basic technical terminology, and problem-solving approaches.
  • Safety in the Work Environment:
  • Explanation: Focus on identifying and mitigating potential safety threats in various work environments.
    • Example: Learning about workplace hazards and safety protocols in industries such as manufacturing or construction.
  • Communication:
  • Explanation: Developing communication skills essential for effective collaboration and information sharing in technical fields.
    • Example: Practicing clear communication in technical project reports or during team discussions.
  • Technical Drawing and Design:
  • Explanation: Introduction to basic technical drawing techniques and design principles.
    • Example: Creating engineering drawings or architectural plans using drafting tools.
  • Basic Computer Skills:
  • Explanation: Acquiring foundational skills in using computers and digital tools relevant to technical fields.
    • Example: Learning to use software for data analysis, drafting, or programming.
  • Materials and Tools Handling:
  • Explanation: Understanding the properties of materials and safe handling of tools used in technical activities.
    • Example: Demonstrating proper use of woodworking tools or laboratory equipment.
  • Problem Solving:
  • Explanation: Developing critical thinking and problem-solving skills applicable to technical challenges.
    • Example: Analyzing and solving engineering problems or troubleshooting technical issues.

b) Role of Pre-Technical Studies in Day-to-Day Life:

  1. Safety Awareness:
  • Explanation: Pre-Technical Studies instill a sense of safety awareness, contributing to a safer daily environment.
    • Example: Knowing how to identify and address potential safety hazards at home or in public spaces.
  • Effective Communication:
  • Explanation: The communication skills learned aid in clear and concise interactions in personal and professional life.
    • Example: Communicating ideas effectively in everyday conversations or writing clear emails.
  • Problem-Solving Skills:
  • Explanation: The problem-solving skills acquired are applicable to addressing challenges in various aspects of life.
    • Example: Solving household issues or addressing technical glitches in personal devices.
  • Understanding Materials:
  • Explanation: Knowledge of materials helps in making informed decisions when purchasing or using products.
    • Example: Choosing appropriate materials for DIY projects or understanding product labels.
  • Basic Computer Literacy:
  • Explanation: Basic computer skills enhance digital literacy, essential in today’s technology-driven world.
    • Example: Using computers for online communication, research, or online transactions.

c) Embracing Pre-Technical Studies in Career Development:

  1. Industry-Relevant Skills:
  • Explanation: Pre-Technical Studies provide foundational skills applicable to a wide range of technical careers.
    • Example: Applying technical drawing skills in architecture or engineering professions.
  • Career Specialization:
  • Explanation: Exposure to different components helps students identify and specialize in specific technical areas.
    • Example: Choosing a career in electronics after gaining skills in handling electronic components.
  • Adaptability in Technological Fields:
  • Explanation: Pre-Technical Studies foster adaptability to emerging technologies, a crucial aspect in evolving careers.
    • Example: Easily transitioning to new software or tools in a tech-oriented workplace.
  • Safety Compliance:
  • Explanation: Understanding safety regulations enhances workplace safety compliance in technical professions.
    • Example: Adhering to safety protocols in a manufacturing or laboratory setting.
  • Effective Collaboration:
  • Explanation: Communication skills developed in Pre-Technical Studies contribute to successful collaboration in team-based technical projects.
    • Example: Working effectively with colleagues on engineering projects or collaborative research.

Lesson 1: Brainstorming on Safety Threats

  • Discussion Points:
  • Physical Safety Threats: Wet floors, exposed wiring, faulty machinery.
    • Online Safety Threats: Cyberbullying, phishing emails, unauthorized access.
  • Explanation:
  • Collaborative brainstorming helps us identify a broad range of safety threats, considering both physical and online aspects.

Lesson 2: Research on Safety Hazards

  • Research Findings:
  • Physical Safety Hazards: Chemical exposure, ergonomic risks, inadequate lighting.
    • Online Safety Hazards: Malware, social engineering attacks, data breaches.
  • Explanation:
  • Researching safety hazards provides us with in-depth knowledge about potential risks in both physical and digital work environments.

Lesson 3: Research on Physical and Online Threats to Digital Devices

  • Research Findings:
  • Physical Threats to Digital Devices: Theft, natural disasters, hardware failure.
    • Online Threats: Impersonation, hacking, unknown friend requests.
  • Explanation:
  • Identifying specific threats helps us develop targeted strategies to protect digital devices both physically and online.

Lesson 4: Sharing Ideas on Data Privacy

  • Shared Ideas:
  • Using strong, unique passwords.
    • Avoiding clicking on suspicious email links.
    • Being cautious about sharing personal information online.
  • Explanation:
  • Sharing and practicing data privacy ideas enhance our ability to keep personal and sensitive information secure.

Key Inquiry Questions:

  1. Why is safety in the work environment important?
  • Discussion Points:
  • Prevents accidents, injuries, and ensures a positive work environment.
    • Contributes to overall well-being and productivity.
  • How can online threats be safeguarded against?
  • Discussion Points:
  • Being vigilant and cautious online.
    • Using strong passwords and avoiding suspicious links.

Lesson 5: Discussing Safety Rules and Regulations

  • Discussed Rules:
  • Wearing Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).
    • Adhering to fire evacuation procedures.
    • Reporting hazards promptly.
  • Explanation:
  • Understanding and discussing safety rules ensures a collective commitment to maintaining a secure work environment.

Lesson 6: Role Play on Safety for Self and Others

  • Role Play Scenarios:
  • Responding to a simulated fire alarm.
    • Demonstrating proper tool usage.
    • Handling a simulated phishing attempt.
  • Explanation:
  • Role-playing helps us apply safety practices in real-life scenarios, fostering a culture of safety within the team.

Overall Understanding:

  • Recognizing safety threats, both physical and online, is crucial for preventing accidents and maintaining a secure work environment.
  • Knowledge of safety rules and regulations contributes to creating a culture of safety within our organization.
  • Regular observation and adherence to safety practices enhance our ability to contribute to a healthy and productive work environment.
  • Appreciating the importance of safety involves understanding its impact on individual well-being, team dynamics, and overall organizational success.

Lesson 1: Brainstorming on Computer Terms

  • Brainstorm on Terms:
  • Computer:
  • Definition: A device that processes data to produce information.
    • Example: Personal computers, laptops, servers.
  • Data:
  • Definition: Raw facts and figures that are input into a computer.
    • Example: Numbers, text, images.
  • Information:
  • Definition: Processed data that conveys meaning and is useful to the user.
    • Example: Analyzed data in a report, a graph representing statistical information.
  • Explanation:
  • Brainstorming helps in defining and understanding key terms related to computers, data, and information.

Lesson 2: Characteristics of a Computer

  • Discussion on Characteristics:
  • Speed:
  • Definition: The rate at which a computer processes tasks.
    • Example: High-speed processors allow quick task execution.
  • Accuracy:
  • Definition: The ability of a computer to perform tasks without errors.
    • Example: Accurate calculations in spreadsheet software.
  • Versatility:
  • Definition: The capability of a computer to handle various tasks and applications.
    • Example: Computers can be used for word processing, graphic design, and gaming.
  • Reliability:
  • Definition: The dependability of a computer to perform consistently.
    • Example: Enterprise-level servers are designed for high reliability.
  • Diligence:
  • Definition: The ability of a computer to perform repetitive tasks without fatigue.
    • Example: Automated data entry tasks performed with diligence.
  • Storage:
  • Definition: The capacity of a computer to store data and information.
    • Example: Hard drives and solid-state drives used for data storage.
  • Consistency:
  • Definition: The uniformity in performance and behavior.
    • Example: Consistent user interface across different software versions.
  • Explanation:
  • Discussing characteristics provides a comprehensive understanding of what makes a computer efficient and effective.

Lesson 3: Video Clip on Classification of Computers

  • Download and Watch a Video Clip:
  • Classification of Computers.
  • Explanation:
  • Visual learning through a video clip enhances understanding of how computers are classified based on various criteria.

Lesson 4: Discussion on Classification of Computers

  • Discussion on Classification Criteria:
  • Functionality:
  • Definition: How a computer is designed to operate and the tasks it can perform.
    • Example: Personal computers for general use, servers for data storage and retrieval.
  • Purpose:
  • Definition: The reason a computer is used, such as gaming, business, or scientific research.
    • Example: Gaming computers with high-end graphics cards, business computers for office tasks.
  • Size:
  • Definition: The physical dimensions of a computer, influencing portability.
    • Example: Desktops for stationary use, laptops for portability, tablets and smartphones for mobility.
  • Explanation:
  • Discussing the classification of computers based on functionality, purpose, and size provides insights into their diverse applications in user environments.

Lesson 5: Interaction with Different Types of Computers

  • Interaction with Computers:
  • Performed Tasks:
  • Word processing on a desktop computer.
    • Internet browsing on a laptop.
    • Graphic design on a high-performance workstation.
  • Explanation:
  • Hands-on interaction enhances practical understanding and application of computer concepts in real-world scenarios.

Key Inquiry Question:

  • Why are there different classes of computers?
  • Discussion Points:
  • Different user needs require specialized computers.
    • Diverse applications and performance requirements lead to the existence of various computer classes.

Overall Understanding:

  • Recognizing key terms and understanding their meanings lays the foundation for computer concepts.
  • Detailed discussions on characteristics provide insights into what makes a computer efficient and reliable.
  • Visual learning through a video clip enhances our understanding of computer classification.
  • Practical interaction with different types of computers reinforces our ability to apply computer skills in real-world scenarios.
  • The key inquiry question prompts us to think critically about the necessity for different classes of computers based on user requirements and applications.

Lesson 1: Brainstorming and Presentation on Communication

  • Brainstorming Session:
  • Meaning of Communication:
  • Exchange of information, ideas, and thoughts.
  • Importance of Communication in the Work Environment:
  • Enhances collaboration.
    • Improves decision-making.
    • Fosters a positive work culture.
  • Presentation:
  • Highlights:
  • Clear communication is crucial for organizational success.
    • Examples of effective communication leading to successful projects or initiatives.
  • Overall Explanation:
  • Understanding the meaning and importance of communication forms the foundation for effective workplace interaction.

Lesson 2: Role Play on Effective Communication

  • Role Play Scenario:
  • Situation:
  • Team members working on a project need to coordinate tasks.
  • Demonstration:
  • Clear communication channels, active listening, and addressing misunderstandings promptly.
  • Overall Explanation:
  • Role-playing helps internalize the significance of clear and concise communication in professional settings.

Lesson 3: Research on ICT Tools in Communication

  • Research Findings:
  • ICT Tools Explored:
  • Email, mobile phones, computers, video and web conferencing tools, social networking, online collaboration.
  • Insights:
  • Email for formal communication, video conferencing for virtual meetings, social networking for informal interactions.
  • Overall Explanation:
  • Researching ICT tools provides insights into the diverse technologies used for workplace communication.

Lesson 4: Discussion on ICT Tools in Communication

  • Discussion Highlights:
  • Email:
  • Formal written communication.
  • Mobile Phones:
  • Quick and direct communication.
  • Video Conferencing:
  • Virtual meetings for remote collaboration.
  • Social Networking:
  • Informal communication and networking.
  • Overall Explanation:
  • Discussing ICT tools helps recognize their functions and applications in various communication scenarios.

Lesson 5: Use of ICT Tools and Internet for Communication

  • Activity Highlights:
  • Practical Scenarios:
  • Sending professional emails, participating in a video conference, collaborating on an online document.
  • Skills Developed:
  • Effective use of communication tools in a simulated workplace environment.
  • Overall Explanation:
  • Hands-on experience using ICT tools and the internet enhances practical communication skills in a technological environment.

Lesson 6: Discussion on Benefits and Challenges of the Internet

  • Discussion Points:
  • Benefits:
  • Global communication, instant access to information, collaborative opportunities.
  • Challenges:
  • Security concerns, information overload, potential for misinformation.
  • Overall Explanation:
  • Understanding the benefits and challenges of the internet enables informed and responsible use in a work context.

Overall Summary:

  • Importance of Communication:
  • Recognizing the critical role of communication in fostering a positive work environment, ensuring clarity, and promoting effective teamwork.
  • ICT Tools in Communication:
  • Understanding and utilizing a variety of ICT tools to enhance workplace communication.
  • Practical Application:
  • Using ICT tools and the internet to simulate workplace communication scenarios, fostering practical skills.
  • Role of Effective Communication:
  • Acknowledging how effective communication contributes to workplace success, collaboration, and overall productivity.
  • Critical Analysis:
  • Evaluating the benefits and challenges of the internet, ensuring responsible and secure communication practices in a professional setting.

Grade 7 Rationalized Pre-Technical Complete Notes

Lesson 1: Discussing the Importance of Drawing

  • Brainstorming on Importance:
  • Visual Communication: Drawing facilitates the expression of ideas and information visually.
    • Precision in Technical Fields: Drawing is crucial for conveying accurate and detailed information in technical and engineering contexts.
    • Creative Expression: In art, drawing allows for creative expression and subjective interpretation.
  • Overall Explanation:
  • Initiating the course by discussing the diverse importance of drawing in various contexts.

Grade 7 Rationalized Pre-Technical Complete Notes Term 1 2 and 3 CBC Junior Secondary

Lesson 2: Brainstorming on Technical and Artistic Drawing

  • Brainstorming on Technical Drawing:
  • Precision: Technical drawings emphasize accuracy and precise measurements.
    • Engineering Applications: Used in engineering and technical fields for schematic representation.
  • Brainstorming on Artistic Drawing:
  • Aesthetics: Artistic drawings focus on aesthetic expression and creativity.
    • Subjective Interpretation: Allows for personal interpretation and creativity.
  • Overall Explanation:
  • Distinguishing between technical and artistic drawing through brainstorming.

Lesson 3: Research on Artistic and Technical Drawing

  • Research Findings:
  • Artistic Drawing:
  • Emphasis on aesthetics, creativity, and subjective expression.
  • Technical Drawing:
  • Emphasis on precision, accuracy, and application in technical fields.
  • Overall Explanation:
  • Researching to understand the specific characteristics and applications of artistic and technical drawing.

Lesson 4: Practicing Printing Numbers and Letters

  • Practical Exercise:
  • Activity:
  • Practice printing numbers and letters of the alphabet as used in drawing.
  • Overall Explanation:
  • Hands-on practice improves the learner’s ability to reproduce numbers and letters accurately in drawings.

Lesson 5: Types of Lines in Drawing

  • Visual Aid Exploration:
  • Visual Aids:
  • Explore information on types of lines and their application in drawing (thick and thin continuous, dashed, and chain).
  • Overall Explanation:
  • Using visual aids to enhance understanding of the application of different types of lines in drawing.

Lesson 6: Drawing Various Types of Lines

  • Drawing Practice:
  • Activity:
  • Draw various types of lines (thick and thin continuous, dashed, and chain).
  • Overall Explanation:
  • Practical drawing activities improve proficiency in creating different types of lines.

Lesson 7: Sketching Basic Symbols and Abbreviations

  • Activity:
  • Activity:
  • Sketch basic symbols (⌀, ℄, R, ⊥, ▢) and abbreviations (DRG, A/F, A/C, I/D, O/D) used in drawing.
  • Overall Explanation:
  • Learning to illustrate symbols and abbreviations enhances the ability to communicate specific information in drawings.

Lesson 8: Audio-Visual Study of Symbol and Abbreviation Applications

  • Audio-Visual Aids:
  • Study:
  • Use audio-visual aids to understand the application of symbols and abbreviations in drawing.
  • Overall Explanation:
  • Utilizing audio-visual aids deepens understanding of how symbols and abbreviations are applied in drawing.

Key Inquiry Question:

  • Why is drawing referred to as a universal way of communication?
  • Discussion Points:
  • Visual Language: Drawing transcends linguistic barriers through a universally understood visual language.
    • Common Understanding: Symbols and representations in drawings have a common, universally understood meaning.

Overall Understanding:

  • Importance of Drawing:
  • Acknowledging drawing as a powerful means of communication, spanning both technical precision and artistic expression.
  • Distinguishing Technical and Artistic Drawing:
  • Understanding the unique characteristics and applications of technical and artistic drawing.
  • Practical Skills:
  • Developing practical skills in printing numbers and letters, drawing various types of lines, and sketching symbols and abbreviations.
  • Appreciation for Drawing:
  • Recognizing the role of drawing in conveying information precisely and creatively across diverse fields.

Lesson 1: Brainstorming on Methods of Dimensioning

  • Brainstorming:
  • Linear Dimensioning:
  • Measuring length in a straight line.
  • Radial Dimensioning:
  • Measuring from a central point, often used in circular objects.
  • Angular Dimensioning:
  • Measuring angles between lines or shapes.
  • Arc Dimensioning:
  • Measuring curved shapes or arcs.
  • Overall Explanation:
  • Beginning the sub-strand with a diverse understanding of methods for dimensioning in plane geometry.

Lesson 2: Illustrating Types of Lines Used in Dimensioning

  • Visual Aid Exploration:
  • Visual Aids:
  • Extension lines: Indicate the points between which the measurement is taken.
    • Dimension lines: Indicate the measured length.
    • Leader lines: Connect features to the dimension lines.
  • Overall Explanation:
  • Visualizing and understanding the roles of various lines used in dimensioning.

Lesson 3: Constructing Combined Shapes

  • Activity:
  • Constructing Shapes:
  • Combining circles, rectangles, and triangles to create complex shapes.
    • Example: Combining a circle and a rectangle to form a cylinder.
  • Overall Explanation:
  • Hands-on activity to build a foundation for understanding and constructing combined shapes.

Lesson 4: Dimensioning Combined Shapes in Plane Geometry

  • Discussion:
  • Forms of Dimensioning:
  • Parallel Dimensioning: Dimensions are placed parallel to the dimension lines.
    • Chain Dimensioning: Dimensions are linked together for efficiency.
    • Combined Dimensioning: Utilizing a combination of both parallel and chain dimensioning.
  • Overall Explanation:
  • Discussing and understanding different forms of dimensioning for combined shapes.

Lesson 5: Visual Aid Exploration of Combined Shapes

  • Visual Aid Exploration:
  • Visual Aids:
  • Identifying combined shapes in visual aids, such as architectural plans or mechanical diagrams.

Lesson 6: Drawing Combined Shapes

  • Discussion:
  • Techniques:
  • Discussing step-by-step techniques to draw combined shapes accurately.
    • Example: Drawing a complex machinery part involving circles and rectangles.
  • Overall Explanation:
  • Understanding the process and techniques involved in accurately drawing combined shapes.

Lesson 7: Research on Methods of Dimensioning Combined Shapes

  • Research Findings:
  • Electronic or Print Media Search:
  • Exploring the latest methods of dimensioning combined shapes through electronic or print media sources.
    • Example: Researching online articles or engineering manuals.
  • Overall Explanation:
  • Researching to gain insights into the most effective and modern methods of dimensioning for combined shapes.

Lesson 8: Drawing and Dimensioning Combined Shapes

  • Activity:
  • Activity:
  • Drawing and dimensioning combined shapes in plane geometry using the learned techniques.
    • Example: Drawing a combination of geometric shapes found in a blueprint.
  • Overall Explanation:
  • Applying acquired knowledge and skills to draw and dimension complex shapes accurately.

Key Inquiry Question:

  • How are combined shapes applied in day-to-day life?
  • Discussion Points:
  • Architecture:
  • Combining shapes in architectural designs for buildings or bridges.
  • Manufacturing:
  • Creating machinery parts with combined shapes for efficiency.
  • Product Design:
  • Incorporating combined shapes in product designs for functionality and aesthetics.

Overall Understanding:

  • Methods of Dimensioning:
  • Grasping the nuances of linear, radial, angular, and arc dimensioning along with the types of lines used.
  • Construction of Combined Shapes:
  • Learning to construct and dimension combined shapes, understanding the importance of different forms of dimensioning.
  • Practical Application:
  • Applying the learned concepts to real-world scenarios, embracing the use of plane geometry in architecture, manufacturing, and product design.

Lesson 1: Exploring Economic Resources

  • Brainstorming and Presentation:
  • Meaning of Economic Resources:
  • Resources utilized in the production of goods and services to meet human needs.
  • Characteristics:
  • Limited availability, utility in production, and potential for satisfying human wants.
  • Example: Fertile land for agriculture, which is limited but essential for producing food.
  • Overall Explanation:
  • Commencing the sub-strand with a detailed understanding of economic resources and their key characteristics.

Lesson 2: Characteristics of Economic Resources

  • Research and Sharing:
  • Print or Digital Media Search:
  • Exploration of various sources to understand the characteristics of economic resources.
  • Example:
  • Limited availability implies that resources are finite and must be managed efficiently to meet the ever-growing human needs.
  • Characteristics of Economic Resources in Point Form:
  • Limited Availability:
  • Resources are finite and not infinite.
  • Utility in Production:
  • Resources are used to produce goods and services.
  • Potential to Satisfy Human Wants:
  • Resources contribute to meeting human needs and desires.
  • Overall Explanation:
  • Understanding the essential characteristics of economic resources through research and shared insights.

Lesson 3: Classification of Economic Resources in Kenya

  • Case Study Analysis:
  • Case Study:
  • Analyzing a case study on the classification and types of economic resources in Kenya.
  • Examples of Economic Resources in Kenya:
  • Agriculture: Land for crop cultivation and livestock rearing.
    • Minerals: Deposits of minerals like gold, soda ash, and titanium.
    • Tourism: Natural attractions like wildlife, national parks, and beaches.
  • Classification of Economic Resources in Kenya:
  • Renewable Resources:
  • Resources that can be naturally replenished, such as agricultural land and forests.
  • Non-renewable Resources:
  • Limited resources like minerals that cannot be quickly replenished.

Grade 7 Rationalized Pre-Technical Complete Notes Term 1 2 and 3 CBC Junior Secondar

  • Overall Explanation:
  • Gaining practical insights into the economic landscape of Kenya through a focused case study.

Lesson 4: Metallic and Non-Metallic Materials as Economic Resources

  • Discussion:
  • Distinguishing Characteristics:
  • Metallic materials (e.g., iron, copper) and non-metallic materials (e.g., wood, rubber) as economic resources.
  • Examples:
  • Metallic Materials: Iron used in construction and copper in electrical wiring.
    • Non-Metallic Materials: Wood for construction and rubber for tire production.
  • Overall Explanation:
  • Understanding the distinct characteristics of metallic and non-metallic materials in the context of economic resources.

Lesson 5: Resource Mapping in the Local Community

  • Activity:
  • Resource Mapping:
  • Conducting resource mapping to identify and document economic resources within the local community.
  • Example:
  • Identifying agricultural areas, water sources, and potential mining sites.
  • Overall Explanation:
  • Applying practical knowledge to recognize economic resources in the immediate environment through resource mapping.

Lesson 6: Sustainable Use of Economic Resources

  • Brainstorm and Presentation:
  • Sustainable Practices:
  • Brainstorming and presenting sustainable ways of using economic resources in Kenya.
  • Examples of Sustainable Practices:
  • Adopting renewable energy sources like solar and wind power.
    • Implementing efficient waste management to minimize environmental impact.
  • Overall Explanation:
  • Emphasizing the importance of sustainable practices to ensure the longevity and responsible use of economic resources.

Lesson 1: Introduction to Metallic Materials

  • Brainstorming and Research:
  • Brainstorming:
  • Exploring prior knowledge about metallic materials.
  • Research:
  • Utilizing print or digital media to gather information on metallic materials.
  • Example:
  • Discussing common types of metallic materials like iron, aluminum, and copper.

Lesson 2: Checklist for Identifying Metallic Materials

  • Practical Activity:
  • Checklist Preparation:
  • Collaborating to prepare a checklist for identifying types of metallic materials.
  • Example:
  • Steel: Recognizing its strength and applications in construction.

Lesson 3: Physical Properties Examination

  • Group Activity:
  • Physical Properties Examination:
  • Conducting practical activities to examine the physical properties of metallic materials.
  • Properties Examined:
  • Magnetism, conductivity of heat and electricity, appearance.
  • Example:
  • Exploring the conductivity of copper and its relevance in electrical applications.

Lesson 4: Discussion on Physical Properties

  • Group Discussion:
  • Discussion:
  • Engaging in a group discussion on the physical properties of metallic materials.
  • Example:
  • Discussing how the physical properties make certain metallic materials suitable for specific applications.

Lesson 5: Matching Materials to their Use

  • Interactive Activity:
  • Matching Activity:
  • Collaborating in an interactive activity to match metallic materials to their uses.
  • Example:
  • Connecting aluminum to its use in aircraft manufacturing due to its lightweight properties.

Lesson 6-10: In-depth Exploration of Metallic Materials

  • In-depth Study:
  • Focused Study on Specific Materials:
  • Distributing research responsibilities for in-depth exploration of specific metallic materials.
  • Example:
  • Steel: Investigating its versatility and roles in construction and automotive industries.

Key Inquiry Question:

  • Why are metallic materials important in day-to-day life?
  • Group Discussion:
  • Collaborating to discuss and understand the significance of metallic materials in various aspects of daily life.
  • Discussion Points:
  • Construction:
  • Essential in building structures and infrastructure.
  • Transportation:
  • Key component in vehicle manufacturing.
  • Electronics:
  • Vital for electronic devices and wiring.

Overall Understanding:

  • Identification of Metallic Materials:
  • Collaboratively identifying various metallic materials commonly used in a work environment.
  • Physical Properties Examination:
  • Engaging in hands-on activities to understand the physical properties of metallic materials.
  • Application in the Work Environment:
  • Collaboratively relating metallic materials to their specific uses in the work environment.
  • Appreciation for Metallic Materials:
  • Developing a collective appreciation for the importance of metallic materials in various aspects of day-to-day life.

10 Examples of Metallic Materials in the Work Environment:

  1. Steel:
  • Physical Properties:
  • High strength, durability, and resistance to corrosion.
  • Uses:
  • Construction of buildings, bridges, and infrastructure.
  • Aluminum:
  • Physical Properties:
  • Lightweight, corrosion-resistant, and excellent conductivity.
  • Uses:
  • Aircraft manufacturing, packaging, and electrical wiring.
  • Copper:
  • Physical Properties:
  • Excellent electrical conductivity, malleability, and corrosion resistance.
  • Uses:
  • Electrical wiring, plumbing, and electronic components.
  • Iron:
  • Physical Properties:
  • High strength, magnetic properties, and versatility.
  • Uses:
  • Construction, manufacturing of machinery, and automotive industry.
  • Brass:
  • Physical Properties:
  • Combination of copper and zinc, corrosion-resistant, and aesthetically pleasing.
  • Uses:
  • Musical instruments, decorative items, and plumbing fittings.
  • Bronze:
  • Physical Properties:
  • Combination of copper and tin, corrosion-resistant, and high strength.
  • Uses:
  • Sculptures, bearings, and marine applications.
  • Titanium:
  • Physical Properties:
  • Lightweight, corrosion-resistant, and high strength.
  • Uses:
  • Aerospace components, medical implants, and sports equipment.
  • Zinc:
  • Physical Properties:
  • Corrosion-resistant, malleable, and conductive.
  • Uses:
  • Galvanizing steel, batteries, and die-casting.
  • Nickel:
  • Physical Properties:
  • Corrosion-resistant, magnetic properties, and high melting point.
  • Uses:
  • Alloying agent in stainless steel, batteries, and electronic devices.
  1. Lead:
  • Physical Properties:
  • Dense, malleable, and corrosion-resistant.
  • Uses:
  • Batteries, radiation shielding, and construction.

Physical Properties of Metallic Materials:

  1. Strength:
  • Ability to withstand an applied force without breaking or deforming.
  • Conductivity:
  • Ability to conduct electricity or heat.
  • Magnetism:
  • Ability to be attracted or repelled by a magnet.
  • Malleability:
  • Ability to deform under pressure, usually into thin sheets.
  • Ductility:
  • Ability to undergo significant deformation before rupture or breaking.
  • Corrosion Resistance:
  • Ability to withstand deterioration due to chemical reactions with the environment.
  • Density:
  • Mass per unit volume, indicating the compactness of the material.
  • Melting Point:
  • Temperature at which a solid turns into a liquid.

10 Uses of Metallic Materials:

  1. Construction of buildings and infrastructure.
  2. Electrical wiring for power distribution.
  3. Manufacturing of machinery and equipment.
  4. Automotive industry for vehicle production.
  5. Aerospace components for aircraft manufacturing.
  6. Medical implants and equipment.
  7. Plumbing fittings for water distribution.
  8. Electronic components in various devices.
  9. Battery production for energy storage.
  10. Marine applications for corrosion-resistant materials.

Importance of Metallic Materials:

  1. Structural Integrity:
  • Essential for building sturdy and durable structures.
  • Versatility:
  • Used across various industries due to their unique properties.
  • Conductivity:
  • Crucial for electrical wiring, facilitating the transmission of electricity.
  • Magnetic Properties:
  • Valuable in applications such as motors and generators.
  • Corrosion Resistance:
  • Ensures longevity and durability, particularly in outdoor environments.
  • Weight Savings:
  • Lightweight materials like aluminum contribute to fuel efficiency in transportation.
  • Aesthetics:
  • Metals like brass and bronze are valued for their visual appeal in decorative items.
  • Medical Applications:
  • Used in medical implants and devices due to biocompatibility.
  • Environmental Benefits:
  • Recyclability of many metallic materials reduces environmental impact.
  1. Economic Impact:
  • Plays a crucial role in the manufacturing sector, contributing to economic development and job creation.

3.0 Materials for Production

3.3 Non-Metallic Materials (10 Lessons)

Learning Objectives: By the end of this sub-strand, you should be able to: a) Identify non-metallic materials found in the locality, b) Categorize non-metallic materials as either synthetic or natural, c) Describe the physical properties of non-metallic materials found in the locality, d) Relate non-metallic materials to their uses in the locality, e) Appreciate the use of non-metallic materials in production.

Lesson 1: Introduction to Non-Metallic Materials

  • Brainstorming and Research:
  • Brainstorming:
  • Discussing what comes to mind when thinking about non-metallic materials.
  • Research:
  • Using print or digital media to explore and gather information on non-metallic materials.
  • Discussion:
  • Group discussion on identified materials like wood, stone, plastics, paper, rubber, cement, glass, and ceramics.

Lesson 2: Categorization of Non-Metallic Materials

  • Sorting Activity:
  • Activity:
  • Sorting materials into synthetic and natural categories.
  • Example:
  • Natural: Wood, Stone, Rubber
    • Synthetic: Plastics, Paper, Cement
  • Discussion:
  • Exploring the characteristics that define synthetic and natural materials.

Lesson 3: Physical Properties Examination

  • Practical Activities:
  • Practical Exercises:
  • Hands-on activities examining the physical properties of non-metallic materials.
  • Properties Examined:
  • Color, Texture, Hardness, Fire Resistance.
  • Example:
  • Examining the color and texture of wood and stone, testing hardness and fire resistance.

Lesson 4: Discussion on Physical Properties

  • Group Discussion:
  • Discussion:
  • Engaging in a group discussion on the importance of various physical properties.
  • Example:
  • Discussing the significance of fire resistance in materials like ceramics.

Lesson 5: Matching Materials to their Use in the Locality

  • Interactive Activity:
  • Matching Activity:
  • Group activity to match non-metallic materials to their specific uses in the locality.
  • Example:
  • Matching rubber to its use in local industries for manufacturing.

Lesson 6-10: In-depth Exploration of Non-Metallic Materials

  • In-depth Study:
  • Focused Study on Specific Materials:
  • Devoting each lesson to in-depth exploration of specific non-metallic materials.
  • Example:
  • Wood: Understanding its versatility and applications in construction and furniture.

Key Inquiry Question:

  • Why are non-metallic materials important?
  • Group Discussion:
  • Collaborative discussion on the importance of non-metallic materials.
  • Discussion Points:
  • Versatility: Used in diverse applications from construction to daily consumer goods.
    • Sustainability: Natural materials contribute to sustainable practices.
    • Functionality: Each material has unique properties catering to specific needs.

Overall Understanding:

  • Identification of Non-Metallic Materials:
  • Recognizing various non-metallic materials commonly found in the locality.
  • Categorization:
  • Understanding the classification of non-metallic materials as either synthetic or natural.
  • Physical Properties Examination:
  • Engaging in hands-on activities to understand the physical properties of non-metallic materials.
  • Application in the Locality:
  • Relating non-metallic materials to their specific uses in the local context.
  • Appreciation for Non-Metallic Materials:
  • Developing a collective appreciation for the importance of non-metallic materials in various aspects of production and daily life.

Non-Metallic Materials Found in the Locality:

  1. Wood (Natural):
  • Physical Properties:
  • Color: Varies based on the type of wood, e.g., oak, pine.
    • Texture: Grainy or smooth.
    • Hardness: Varies, but generally less hard than metals.
  • Uses:
  • Construction, furniture, paper production.
  • Stone (Natural):
  • Physical Properties:
  • Color: Varied, e.g., granite, limestone.
    • Texture: Ranges from rough to smooth.
    • Hardness: Generally hard.
  • Uses:
  • Construction, sculptures, decorative purposes.
  • Plastics (Synthetic):
  • Physical Properties:
  • Color: Diverse colors based on additives.
    • Texture: Can be smooth or textured.
    • Hardness: Varies from flexible to rigid.
  • Uses:
  • Packaging, containers, toys, medical devices.
  • Paper (Natural):
  • Physical Properties:
  • Color: Typically white or brown.
    • Texture: Can be smooth or coarse.
    • Hardness: Relatively soft.
  • Uses:
  • Writing, printing, packaging.
  • Rubber (Natural/Synthetic):
  • Physical Properties:
  • Color: Usually black or brown.
    • Texture: Elastic and flexible.
    • Hardness: Soft.
  • Uses:
  • Tires, hoses, footwear, seals.
  • Cement (Synthetic):
  • Physical Properties:
  • Color: Gray when dry.
    • Texture: Powdery when dry, hardens when mixed with water.
    • Hardness: Becomes very hard when cured.
  • Uses:
  • Construction, building foundations.
  • Glass (Synthetic):
  • Physical Properties:
  • Color: Transparent or tinted.
    • Texture: Smooth and brittle.
    • Hardness: Hard and brittle.

Grade 7 Rationalized Pre-Technical Complete Notes

  • Uses:
  • Windows, containers, optical lenses.
  • Ceramics (Natural/Synthetic):
  • Physical Properties:
  • Color: Varies, often earthy tones.
    • Texture: Smooth and brittle.
    • Hardness: Hard.
  • Uses:
  • Pottery, tiles, insulators.
  • Concrete (Synthetic):
  • Physical Properties:
  • Color: Gray.
    • Texture: Rigid and coarse.
    • Hardness: Very hard.
  • Uses:
  • Construction, infrastructure.
  1. Natural Fiber (Natural):
  2. Physical Properties:
  • Color: Varies based on the fiber source.
    • Texture: Natural, often soft.
    • Hardness: Flexible.
  • Uses:
  • Textiles, rope, mats.

Importance of Non-Metallic Materials:

  1. Versatility:
  • Non-metallic materials are versatile and can be adapted for various purposes.
  • Sustainability:
  • Natural materials contribute to sustainable practices and are often renewable.
  • Insulation:
  • Non-metallic materials like rubber and plastics are excellent insulators of electricity and heat.
  • Aesthetics:
  • Materials like wood, stone, and ceramics contribute to the aesthetic appeal of products.
  • Lightweight:
  • Many non-metallic materials are lightweight, making them suitable for various applications.
  • Corrosion Resistance:
  • Non-metallic materials are not prone to corrosion, making them durable in certain environments.
  • Customization:
  • Non-metallic materials can be easily molded and shaped for specific applications.
  • Biocompatibility:
  • Some non-metallic materials, like certain plastics and ceramics, are biocompatible, making them suitable for medical applications.
  • Cost-Effective:
  • Non-metallic materials are often more cost-effective than metals, making them accessible for various industries.
  1. Innovation:
  • Non-metallic materials continue to drive innovation in various fields, from construction to electronics.

4.0 Tools and Production

4.1 Measuring and Marking Out Tools (18 Lessons)

Learning Objectives: By the end of this sub-strand, learners should be able to: a) Identify measuring and marking out tools in the work environment, b) Select measuring and marking out tools for a given task, c) Use measuring and marking out tools to perform a given task, d) Care for measuring and marking out tools in the work environment, e) Recognize the importance of measuring and marking out tools in the work environment.

Lesson 1-3: Introduction to Measuring Tools

  • Brainstorming and Identification:
  • Brainstorming:
  • Encouraging learners to think about tools used for measurement.
  • Identification:
  • Utilizing visual aids and real-life examples to identify measuring tools.

Lesson 4-6: Introduction to Marking Out Tools

  • Brainstorming and Identification:
  • Brainstorming:
  • Exploring what learners already know about marking out tools.
  • Identification:
  • Identifying marking out tools in the work environment using visual aids.

Lesson 7-9: Discussion on the Use of Measuring and Marking Out Tools

  • Group Discussion:
  • Topic:
  • Discussing the relevance and significance of measuring and marking out tools.
  • Examples:
  • Engaging learners with real-world examples of precision and accurate measurements.

Lesson 10-12: Selecting Appropriate Tools for Tasks

  • Interactive Activity:
  • Task Assignment:
  • Assigning tasks and guiding learners to choose the right measuring and marking out tools.
  • Example:
  • Providing a scenario where they need to measure a specific length and select the appropriate tool.

Lesson 13-15: Research on Tool Use

  • Research Activity:
  • Information Search:
  • Guiding learners to use available resources to understand the practical use of tools.
  • Group Discussion:
  • Sharing findings and discussing applications in different industries.

Lesson 16-18: Practical Demonstration and Maintenance

  • Practical Demonstration:
  • Demonstrations:
  • Showing how to use measuring and marking out tools for specific tasks.
  • Care and Maintenance:
  • Teaching the importance of caring for and maintaining tools for prolonged use.

Key Inquiry Questions:

  1. Why are measuring and marking out tools important in a work environment?
  • Group Discussion:
  • Encouraging learners to share thoughts on precision, efficiency, and avoiding errors in work tasks.
  • How are measuring and marking out tools used in a work environment?
  • Practical Exercises:
  • Engaging learners in hands-on tasks to apply the knowledge acquired during the lessons.

Overall Understanding:

  • Tool Identification:
  • Ensuring learners can identify a variety of measuring and marking out tools.
  • Selection and Use:
  • Teaching the skill of selecting the right tool for specific tasks and using them effectively.
  • Importance of Precision:
  • Emphasizing the significance of precision and accuracy in various work environments.
  • Care and Maintenance:
  • Instilling the habit of caring for and maintaining tools to ensure longevity and optimal performance.

Measuring Tools:

  1. Tape Measure:
  • Use:
  • Measuring longer distances, especially in construction and carpentry.
  • Steel Rule:
  • Use:
  • Providing precise measurements for smaller objects in various industries.
  • Calipers:
  • Use:
  • Measuring the distance between two opposite sides of an object with great accuracy, commonly used in engineering and machining.
  • Weighing Balance:
  • Use:
  • Determining the weight of objects, crucial in laboratories and scientific experiments.
  • Stopwatch:
  • Use:
  • Measuring time intervals, essential in sports, manufacturing, and scientific research.
  • Ammeter:
  • Use:
  • Measuring electrical current flow in a circuit, vital for electrical troubleshooting and maintenance.
  • Voltmeter:
  • Use:
  • Measuring electrical voltage, critical for analyzing and maintaining electrical systems.
  • Divider:
  • Use:
  • Dividing distances into equal parts in various precision applications such as metalworking and woodworking.
  • Try-Square:
  • Use:
  • Ensuring the accuracy of right angles in woodworking and metalworking.
  1. Marking Gauge:
  • Use:
  • Creating straight lines and accurate measurements on wood and other materials.
  1. Dot Punch:
  • Use:
  • Creating precise reference points on metal surfaces for drilling or machining.
  1. Scriber:
  • Use:
  • Marking precise lines on metal or other materials, often used in metalworking and machining.
  1. Pencil:
  • Use:
  • Basic tool for marking on various materials, from paper to wood.
  1. Marking Knife:
  • Use:
  • Producing precise markings on wood or other soft materials, commonly used in woodworking.
  1. Electronic Level:
  • Use:
  • Measuring the inclination or tilt of an object, crucial in construction and carpentry.

Importance of Precision and Accuracy:

  • Quality Assurance:
  • Ensures the production of high-quality products or services.
  • Safety:
  • Critical in industries where precision is vital for safety, such as aerospace or medical equipment manufacturing.
  • Cost Efficiency:
  • Reduces material wastage and unnecessary rework, leading to cost savings.
  • Customer Satisfaction:
  • Precision ensures that products meet or exceed customer expectations.

Care and Maintenance:

  • Regular Cleaning:
  • Keep tools clean to prevent inaccuracies caused by dirt or debris.
  • Proper Storage:
  • Store tools in designated places to avoid damage and misplacement.
  • Regular Calibration:
  • Calibrate tools regularly to maintain accuracy.
  • Avoiding Impact:
  • Handle tools with care to prevent damage to delicate components.

Importance of Care and Maintenance:

  • Prolonged Lifespan:
  • Regular care extends the lifespan of tools, providing long-term utility.
  • Consistent Accuracy:
  • Well-maintained tools maintain their accuracy, ensuring reliable measurements.
  • Reduced Downtime:
  • Properly cared-for tools are less likely to malfunction, reducing downtime in work processes.
  • Cost Savings:
  • Regular maintenance reduces the need for frequent replacements, saving on costs.

Grade 7 Rationalized Pre-Technical Complete Notes Term 1 2 and 3 CBC Junior Secondary

  • Safety:
  • Properly maintained tools are safer to use, preventing accidents due to malfunction or inaccurate measurements.

4.0 Tools and Production

4.2 Production of Goods and Services (8 Lessons)

Learning Objectives: By the end of this sub-strand, learners should be able to: a) Explain the benefits of production to the community, b) Distinguish between goods and services found in the local market, c) Describe the factors of production in the community, d) Analyze the ethical and unethical practices in the production of goods and services, e) Participate in production activities in the community.

Lesson 1-2: Meaning and Benefits of Production

  • Brainstorming and Presentation:
  • Brainstorming:
  • Open discussion on what “production” means to learners.
    • Encourage sharing of ideas and personal experiences related to production.
  • Presentation:
  • Introduction to the concept of production, emphasizing its importance to individuals and the community.

Lesson 3-4: Goods and Services in the Local Market

  • Discussion and Presentation:
  • Discussion:
  • Differentiating between goods and services through group discussion.
  • Presentation:
  • Provide examples and characteristics of goods and services found in the local market.

Lesson 5-6: Factors of Production

  • Case Study Analysis:
  • Case Study:
  • Analyzing a case study on a local business, identifying factors of production involved.
  • Discussion:
  • Engage in a discussion on the importance of land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurship in the production process.

Lesson 7-8: Ethical and Unethical Practices in Production

  • Research and Discussion:
  • Research:
  • Individual or group research on ethical and unethical practices in production.
  • Discussion:
  • Facilitate a group discussion where learners share their findings and insights.
    • Encourage critical thinking on the consequences of such practices.

Key Inquiry Question:

  • Why are factors of production important?
  • Discussion:
  • Engage learners in a group discussion exploring the critical role factors of production play in economic activities and community development.

Overall Understanding:

  • Benefits of Production:
  • Emphasize the positive impacts of production on community development, economic growth, and individual well-being.
  • Goods and Services:
  • Ensure a clear understanding of the distinctions between tangible goods and intangible services available in the local market.
  • Factors of Production:
  • Reinforce the importance of land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurship in the production process.
  • Ethical Practices:
  • Encourage learners to think critically about ethical practices that contribute positively to the community and economy.
  • Community Participation:
  • Motivate learners to actively participate in community production activities for hands-on experience.

Application of Knowledge:

  • Real-World Application:
  • Discuss real-world examples where the knowledge gained about production can be applied.
  • Ethical Decision-Making:
  • Encourage learners to think about making ethical decisions in their personal and community production activities.
  • Active Citizenship:
  • Emphasize the role of active citizenship in contributing positively to community development through ethical and productive practices.

1. Production:

  • Definition: Production refers to the process of creating goods and services by utilizing various resources and transforming inputs into outputs. It involves the creation and provision of products or services that fulfill human needs and wants.
  • Benefits of Production:
  • Economic Growth: Production contributes significantly to economic growth by generating income, employment, and business opportunities.
    • Improved Living Standards: The availability of goods and services enhances the quality of life by providing the necessities and conveniences people require.
    • Innovation and Technological Advancement: Production drives innovation as businesses seek efficient ways to create and deliver goods and services.
    • Global Trade: It facilitates global trade, allowing countries to specialize in what they do best and exchange goods and services internationally.
    • Community Development: Local production fosters community development by creating a network of interconnected businesses and services.

2. Distinguishing Goods and Services:

  • Goods:
  • Definition: Tangible, physical products that can be touched, seen, and stored.
    • Examples: Clothing, electronics, furniture, cars.
    • Characteristics: Tangibility, durability, and the ability to be stored.
  • Services:
  • Definition: Intangible actions or tasks performed to meet a need or desire.
    • Examples: Education, healthcare, consulting, transportation.
    • Characteristics: Intangibility, perishability (cannot be stored), and inseparability (produced and consumed simultaneously).

3. Factors of Production:

  • Land:
  • Role: Natural resources used in the production process.
    • Examples: Agricultural land, minerals, water resources.
  • Labor:
  • Role: Human effort and skills applied to the production of goods and services.
    • Examples: Workers, employees, skilled professionals.
  • Capital:
  • Role: Tools, machinery, and financial resources used in production.
    • Examples: Factories, computers, money for investment.
  • Entrepreneurship:
  • Role: Innovation, risk-taking, and organizing resources for production.
    • Examples: Business owners, innovators, risk-takers.

4. Ethical and Unethical Practices in Production:

  • Ethical Practices:
  • Fair Labor Practices: Treating workers fairly, providing safe working conditions, and paying a living wage.
    • Environmental Sustainability: Adopting eco-friendly production methods and minimizing environmental impact.
    • Honest Marketing: Providing accurate information to consumers about products and services.
    • Community Engagement: Contributing positively to the communities in which production activities take place.
  • Unethical Practices:
  • Exploitative Labor: Unfair treatment of workers, including low wages, long hours, and poor working conditions.
    • Environmental Harm: Ignoring environmental regulations, leading to pollution and resource depletion.
    • False Advertising: Deceptive marketing practices that mislead consumers about product attributes.
    • Sweatshop Labor: Using cheap and exploitative labor practices, often in developing countries


5.0 Entrepreneurship

5.1 Introduction to Entrepreneurship (8 lessons)

Learning Objectives:

By the end of this sub-strand, the learner should be able to:

a) Explain the Importance of Entrepreneurship:

  • Discuss the significance of entrepreneurship for both individuals and communities.

b) Describe the Qualities of an Entrepreneur in Business:

  • Identify and articulate the key qualities that define a successful entrepreneur.

c) Explore Sources of Business Ideas for a Business Venture:

  • Utilize available resources to investigate and present various sources of business ideas.

d) Analyse the Factors Considered When Evaluating the Viability of a Business Opportunity:

  • Evaluate the critical factors involved in assessing the feasibility of a business opportunity.

e) Evaluate the Factors That Enhance Success in a Business:

  • Examine and assess the factors contributing to success in a business venture.

f) Practice Entrepreneurship for Self and Community Development:

  • Engage in practical entrepreneurial activities aimed at personal and community development.

Learner’s Guided Activities:

  1. Brainstorm and Present the Meaning of ‘Entrepreneur’ and ‘Entrepreneurship’:
  • Encourage learners to collectively define the terms ‘entrepreneur’ and ‘entrepreneurship.’
  • Discuss and Present on the Importance of Entrepreneurship:
  • Facilitate discussions on the significance of entrepreneurship at both individual and community levels.
  • Download and Watch a Video Clip or Use Resources on Entrepreneurial Qualities:
  • Instruct learners to use multimedia resources to understand and present the qualities of a successful entrepreneur.
  • Conduct Self-Assessment on Entrepreneurial Qualities:
  • Guide learners in assessing their own entrepreneurial qualities and areas for improvement.
  • Search for and Present the Meaning and Sources of Business Ideas:
  • Direct learners to utilize available resources to explore and present various sources of business ideas.
  • Compile a List of Business Ideas and Determine Viability:
  • Task learners with compiling a list of potential business ideas and conducting an analysis to determine their viability.
  • Read, Analyze, and Present a Case Study on Factors Enhancing Business Success:
  • Assign a case study for learners to read, analyze, and present key factors that contribute to the success of a business.
  • Practice Entrepreneurship for Self and Community Development:
  • Engage learners in practical entrepreneurial activities with the goal of fostering both personal and community development.

These learning activities aim to provide a comprehensive understanding of entrepreneurship, from conceptual foundations to practical applications.

1. Meaning of ‘Entrepreneur’ and ‘Entrepreneurship’:

  • Entrepreneur:
  • Individual who initiates and operates a business, taking on financial risks with the goal of profit.
    • Someone willing to innovate, create, and manage a venture.
  • Entrepreneurship:
  • The process of designing, launching, and running a new business.
    • Involves the willingness to take risks and create something new in the pursuit of opportunities.

2. Significance of Entrepreneurship at Both Individual and Community Levels:

  • Individual Level:
  • Economic Growth: Enables individuals to create wealth and achieve financial independence.
    • Self-Reliance: Empowers individuals to rely on their skills and ideas for income.
    • Innovation: Fosters creativity and the pursuit of personal goals.
  • Community Level:
  • Job Creation: Entrepreneurs establish businesses that generate employment opportunities.
    • Economic Stability: Diversifies the economy, reducing dependence on specific industries.
    • Community Development: Sparks innovation, improves living standards, and contributes to social well-being.

3. Qualities of a Successful Entrepreneur:

  • Innovative Thinking:
  • Ability to generate new ideas and approaches.
  • Risk-Taking Ability:
  • Willingness to take calculated risks for potential rewards.
  • Leadership Skills:
  • Capacity to guide and inspire a team toward common goals.
  • Adaptability and Resilience:
  • Ability to navigate challenges and adapt to changing circumstances.
  • Vision and Goal-Oriented:
  • Clear vision for the business and the ability to set and achieve goals.

Grade 7 Rationalized Pre-Technical Complete Notes

4. Meaning and Sources of Business Ideas:

Meaning of Business Ideas:

  • Concepts or plans that have the potential to be developed into a profitable business.
  • Sources of Business Ideas:
  • Market Trends: Identifying emerging needs and preferences in the market.
    • Personal Experiences: Solving problems based on personal challenges or observations.
    • Industry Gaps: Identifying areas where current products or services are lacking.
    • Technology and Innovation: Utilizing advancements to create novel products or services.

5. Key Factors Contributing to the Success of a Business:

  • Effective Business Planning:
  • Developing a comprehensive business plan with clear goals and strategies.
  • Market Research and Understanding Customer Needs:
  • Conducting thorough market analysis to identify target audiences and their needs.
  • Strong Leadership and Management:
  • Competent leadership to guide the team and effective management of resources.
  • Adaptation to Changing Market Conditions:
  • Flexibility to adjust strategies based on market dynamics.
  • Financial Management and Sustainability:
  • Sound financial practices ensuring the long-term viability of the business.

5.0 Entrepreneurship

5.2 Money (10 lessons)

Learning Objectives:

By the end of this sub-strand, the learner should be able to:

a) Identify the Characteristics of Money as a Medium of Exchange:

  • Recognize and understand the fundamental features that define money as a medium of exchange.

b) Explain the Uses of Money in Day-to-Day Life:

  • Articulate the various ways in which money is utilized in everyday activities.

c) Describe the Key Security Features of the Kenyan Currency:

  • Analyze and understand the security measures embedded in the Kenyan currency.

d) Analyse the Themes and Symbols on the Kenyan Currency:

  • Investigate and interpret the thematic elements and symbols present on Kenyan currency.

e) Appreciate the Use of Money in Day-to-Day Life:

  • Develop an understanding and appreciation for the role of money in daily activities.

Learner’s Guided Activities:

  1. Brainstorm and Present the Meaning and Characteristics of Money:
  • Facilitate discussions and presentations on the definition and key characteristics of money.
  • Share Experiences on the Use of Money for Buying Goods and Services:
  • Encourage learners to share personal experiences related to the use of money for purchasing goods and services.
  • Discuss and Present on the Uses of Money:
  • Engage learners in discussions and presentations exploring the diverse uses of money.
  • Use Print or Digital Media to Search for Information on the Uses of Money:
  • Instruct learners to utilize print or digital media to gather information on various applications of money.
  • Use Kenyan Currency to Observe Key Security Features:
  • Guide learners in using Kenyan currency to observe and understand the security features incorporated into the currency.
  • Brainstorm and Present Themes and Symbols on the Kenyan Currency:
  • Facilitate brainstorming sessions and presentations on the themes and symbols depicted on Kenyan currency.
  • Use Different Denominations of Kenyan Currency to Examine Themes and Symbols:
  • Instruct learners to explore various denominations of Kenyan currency, examining and interpreting the themes and symbols present.

These activities aim to provide learners with a comprehensive understanding of money, including its characteristics, uses, security features, and the symbolic elements embedded in the national currency.

1. Meaning and Characteristics of Money:


  • Definition: Medium of exchange that is widely accepted in transactions for goods, services, or settlement of debts.
  • Function: Facilitates economic transactions, eliminating the need for barter.


  1. Durability: Should withstand wear and tear.
  2. Portability: Easily carried and transferred.
  3. Divisibility: Can be divided into smaller units.
  4. Uniformity: Each unit is the same in terms of value and features.
  5. Limited Supply: Controlled to maintain value.
  6. Acceptability: Universally recognized and accepted.

2. Use of Money for Buying Goods and Services:

  • Medium of Exchange:
  • Facilitates transactions between buyers and sellers.
  • Store of Value:
  • Enables saving and holding value for future use.
  • Unit of Account:
  • Serves as a standard measure of value for goods and services.
  • Standard of Deferred Payment:
  • Allows for agreements to pay in the future.
  • Convenience:
  • Enhances the ease and efficiency of transactions.

3. Kenyan Currency Key Security Features:

  • Watermark:
  • Prominent images visible when held against light.
  • Security Thread:
  • Thin metallic thread with text and images.
  • Color-Shifting Ink:
  • Color changes when viewed from different angles.
  • Microprinting:
  • Tiny text or patterns that are difficult to reproduce.
  • Raised Printing:
  • Certain elements are raised to the touch.
  • See-Through Feature:
  • Design elements that align when the note is held up to the light.

4. Themes and Symbols on the Kenyan Currency:

  • Big Five Series (Current):
  • Features iconic African wildlife such as lions, elephants, rhinos, buffaloes, and leopards.
  • Effigy of Kenyatta Series (Previous):
  • Portraits of Jomo Kenyatta, Kenya’s first president.
  • Historical Figures:
  • Depictions of notable individuals in Kenyan history.
  • Cultural Symbols:
  • Symbols representing Kenya’s diverse cultures and heritage.

5. List of Different Kenyan Currency, Their Themes, Symbols, and Meaning:

  • Current Series: Big Five (2019 – Present)
  • Denominations: Various, including 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1000 shillings.
    • Themes and Symbols: Wildlife representing the “Big Five” animals in Africa.
    • Meaning: Celebrates Kenya’s rich biodiversity and tourism.
  • Previous Series: Effigy of Kenyatta (1986 – 2019)
  • Denominations: Various, including 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1000 shillings.
    • Themes and Symbols: Portraits of Jomo Kenyatta, Kenya’s first president.
    • Meaning: Honors Kenya’s founding leader and emphasizes national pride.
  • Other Commemorative Series: Various (e.g., 2010 Constitution Series)
  • Denominations: Vary based on the commemorative event.
    • Themes and Symbols: Reflect the significance of the commemorated event.
    • Meaning: Commemorates historical events, achievements, or milestones in Kenya

Themes and Symbols on Kenyan Currency:

  1. National landmarks.
  2. Wildlife.
  3. National heroes.
  4. Cultural artifacts.
  5. Agriculture and farming.
  6. Transport and infrastructure.
  7. Economic activities.
  8. Education and knowledge.
  9. Independence and freedom.
  10. National unity and diversity.

Examples of Kenyan Currency and Their Themes:

  1. 1000 Kenyan Shillings – Elephants (Wildlife).
  2. 500 Kenyan Shillings – Jomo Kenyatta (National Hero).
  3. 200 Kenyan Shillings – SGR Train (Transport and Infrastructure).
  4. 100 Kenyan Shillings – Buffalo (Wildlife).
  5. 50 Kenyan Shillings – Green Energy (Economic Activities).
  6. 20 Kenyan Shillings – Giraffes (Wildlife).
  7. 10 Kenyan Shillings – Coffee Farming (Agriculture).
  8. 5 Kenyan Shillings – The Big Five (Wildlife).
  9. 2 Kenyan Shillings – Tourism (National Landmarks).
  10. 1 Kenyan Shilling – The Coat of Arms (National Unity).

5.0 Entrepreneurship

5.3 Financial Goals (10 lessons)

Learning Objectives:

By the end of this sub-strand, the learner should be able to:

a) Explain the Importance of Setting Goals in Financial Management:

  • Articulate the significance of establishing clear financial objectives for effective financial management.

b) Analyse the Factors to Consider When Setting Financial Goals:

  • Evaluate the key considerations and factors influencing the establishment of financial goals.

c) Formulate Financial Goals for Individual Development:

  • Develop and articulate personalized financial goals aligned with individual development.

d) Observe Financial Discipline in Financial Management:

  • Practice and adhere to financial discipline in the management of personal finances.

Learner’s Guided Activities:

  1. Discuss and Present the Meaning and Importance of Setting Goals in Financial Management:
  • Engage learners in discussions and presentations on the definition and significance of setting financial goals.
  • Discuss and Present the Importance of Financial Discipline:
  • Explore and present the importance of maintaining financial discipline for long-term financial well-being.
  • Brainstorm and Present on the Factors to Consider When Setting Financial Goals:
  • Facilitate brainstorming sessions and presentations on various factors that should be considered when setting financial goals.
  • Use Print or Digital Media to Search for Information on Setting Financial Goals:
  • Instruct learners to use print or digital media to gather information and insights on effective strategies for setting financial goals.
  • Set Specific Measurable Achievable Realistic and Time-Bound (SMART) Financial Goals:
  • Guide learners in the practical application of the SMART criteria to set well-defined financial goals.

Guiding Questions for Reflection:

  1. Why is it Important for an Individual to Set Financial Goals?
  • Encourages learners to reflect on the personal benefits and motivation behind setting financial goals.
  • What are the Factors to Consider When Setting Financial Goals?
  • Guides learners in analyzing and understanding the various considerations that influence effective financial goal-setting.

1. Meaning and Importance of Setting Goals in Financial Management:


  • Definition: Establishing clear and achievable objectives for one’s financial future.
  • Purpose: Provides a roadmap for financial decision-making and resource allocation.
  • Involves: Identifying financial aspirations, such as savings targets, investment goals, and debt reduction plans.


  1. Direction and Focus:
  • Guides financial decisions by providing a clear sense of direction.
  • Motivation:
  • Fosters motivation by creating tangible targets to work towards.
  • Resource Allocation:
  • Helps prioritize spending and saving based on identified goals.
  • Measuring Progress:
  • Enables individuals to track and measure their financial progress.
  • Financial Security:
  • Enhances financial stability and security over the long term.

2. Importance of Financial Discipline:

  • Avoids Impulsive Decisions:
  • Financial discipline prevents impulsive spending or investment decisions.
  • Encourages Saving:
  • Fosters a habit of regular saving, contributing to financial stability.
  • Debt Management:
  • Helps in managing and reducing debts systematically.
  • Consistent Investment:
  • Encourages disciplined and consistent investment practices.
  • Long-Term Financial Health:
  • Contributes to overall financial well-being by promoting responsible financial behavior.

3. Factors to Consider When Setting Financial Goals:

  1. Specificity:
  • Clearly define each financial goal to avoid ambiguity.
  • Measurability:
  • Establish quantifiable metrics to track progress.
  • Achievability:
  • Set goals that are realistic and attainable based on current financial circumstances.
  • Relevance:
  • Align goals with personal values and overall financial objectives.
  • Time-Bound:
  • Set a timeframe for each goal to create a sense of urgency and accountability.
  • Flexibility:
  • Allow for adjustments to goals as life circumstances change.
  • Risk Consideration:
  • Assess and mitigate potential risks associated with each financial goal.

4. Specific Measurable Achievable Realistic and Time-Bound (SMART) Financial Goals:

  • Specific:
  • Clearly define the goal, answering who, what, where, when, and why.
  • Measurable:
  • Establish quantifiable criteria for tracking progress.
  • Achievable:
  • Ensure the goal is realistic and attainable within current constraints.
  • Realistic:
  • Set goals that are practical and aligned with available resources.
  • Time-Bound:
  • Assign a specific timeframe for achieving the goal.

Example: Saving $5,000 for an emergency fund within the next 12 months.

Importance of Setting Financial Goals:

  1. Financial planning and stability.
  2. Wealth accumulation.
  3. Budgeting and expense management.
  4. Future investments.
  5. Emergency fund creation.
  6. Retirement planning.
  7. Achievement of personal aspirations.
  8. Education and skill development.
  9. Homeownership.
  10. Improved quality of life.

Factors to Consider When Setting Financial Goals:

  1. Clear and specific objectives.
  2. Measurable outcomes.
  3. Achievable within a set timeframe.
  4. Realistic and aligned with personal values.
  5. Consideration of income and expenses.
  6. Evaluation of risk tolerance.
  7. Adjustment for life changes.
  8. Periodic reassessment and updates.
  9. Consultation with financial advisors.
  10. Consistent tracking of progress.

Formulating SMART Financial Goals:

  • Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Time-bound.

Observing Financial Discipline:

  1. Budgeting and expense tracking.
  2. Avoiding impulsive spending.
  3. Regular saving and investing.
  4. Debt management and reduction.
  5. Emergency fund creation.
  6. Continual financial education.
  7. Planning for major life events.
  8. Seeking professional financial advice.
  9. Reviewing and adjusting financial plans.
  10. Adapting to changing economic conditions.

Grade 7 Rationalized Pre-Technical Complete Notes Term 1 2 and 3 CBC Junior Secondary

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