The Integrated Science Curriculum
The JSS Science curriculum emphasizes inquiry-based learning experiences. These accord learners the opportunity to use content knowledge to develop information processing and problem-solving skills. Focus is on formative performance assessment, to breach the theory-practice gap in Science classrooms. As such, the implementation of a scientific learning culture at JSS will require simple basic and adaptive facilities or resources and spaces that will enable learners to practice both the manipulative and basic process skills suggested in the Curriculum Designs.
Table 5 summarises the main activities that require a Science or mobile laboratory and/or Science kit, with the suggested learning experiences in the four strands of the Grade 7 Curriculum Designs
Table 5: Grade 7 Science Activities that Necessitate a Mobile Lab or Science Kit.
|Grade 7 Prescribed Learning Activities/Experiments|
|1.0 scientific investigations||1.4 Laboratory apparatus and instruments||Identification of laboratory apparatus and instruments (for heating, measuring mass, temperature, length, volume, weight, magnification and time) (include parts and functions of a microscope and Bunsen burner) Experiment on handling, use and care for the apparatus and instruments in the laboratory. Experiment on safety precautions when handling chemicals, apparatus and instruments in the laboratory.|
|2.0 Mixtures, Elements and Compounds||2.1 Mixtures||Experiment on classification of different types of mixtures as homogeneous or heterogeneous (solid-solid, solid-liquid, liquid-liquid and gas-gas mixtures). Experiments to determine the boiling and melting points of pure and impure substances (ice, candle wax, water, salty water). Separation of different types of mixtures (simple distillation, filtration, decantation, use of a magnet, sublimation, paper chromatography, solvent extraction, crystallization).|
|2.2 Acids, bases and indicators||Experiment on preparation and use of plant extract indicator to classify common household solutions as either acidic or basic. Classification of different household solutions as either acidic or basic using indicators (use methyl orange, litmus or phenolphthalein). Classification of acidic or basic solutions as either strong or weak. (use universal indicator, pH scale and pH chart).|
|3.0 Living Things and their Environment||3.1Reproduction in human beings||Illustration and animations showing fertilization and implantation (movement of the sperm, fusion with the egg, formation of zygote and its implantation on uterus).|
|3.2 Human Excretory System-Skin and Urinary System||Illustration on parts and functions of the human skin (hair, sweat glands and epidermis –avoid homeostatic functions of the skin). Illustration on parts of the urinary system and their functions (external appearance of the kidney and vessels serving kidney, ureter, bladder, urethra). Experiment on use of hand lens to observe the external parts of the skin (hair and sweat pores).|
|4. Force and Energy||Static Electricity||Practical to show the presence of static charges in objects. Practical on charge different objects by rubbing, induction and other basic methods Practical to show attraction and repulsion between charged objects. Demonstration of safety measures when dealing with static charges (include lightning).|
|Electrical Energy.||Demonstrations of sources of electricity (hydro-electric power, geothermal, solar, wind power). Practical on setting up simple electrical circuits. (series and parallel arrangement of cells and bulbs). Experiments to classify materials as conductors and non-conductors of electricity. Filed work to identify various electrical appliances in the locality. Demonstrations of safety measures to observe when using electrical appliances. Demonstrations on uses of electricity in the environment.|
|Magnetism||Field work activities and practical to identify and collect materials within the environment, sort and group them as magnetic and non-magnetic materials. Practical or experiments to show attraction between two unlike poles and repulsion between two like poles of magnets. Demonstration on uses of magnets Animations to show force between like and unlike poles of magnets.|
The JSS Pre-Technical Studies Curriculum
The JSS Pre-technical studies curriculum SHALL be implemented as follows;
- Conducted in the classroom except where learning involves activities that require learners to visit local sites such as construction sites, businesses, industries (where applicable) and the local community to acquire the skills.
- Leverage the resources available in the school and its environs.
- Ensure affordability when purchasing manila papers, drawing papers, geometrical sets (mathematical), first aid kit, digital and assistive devices.
- Teachers SHOULD scan the environment in advance, for resources to facilitate the different learning areas and adapt these appropriately.
- Teachers SHOULD exercise creativity and innovativeness in use of resources (including improvisation and adaptation to minimize on implementation costs).
- Parents SHALL be expected to support the learners in extended activities.
Table 6 guides the JSS teachers on how to cost- effectively implement the Grade 7 Pre-technical studies curriculum design.
Table 6: Proposed Cost- Effective Implementation of the Grade 7 Pre- technical Studies Curriculum Design
|Strand||How to Implement||Resources||Comments|
|Safety||Within the classroom Invite resource persons on safety Extended activities||Charts, first aid kit, digital devices, print materials, online resources||• Necessitates teacher creativity to improvise the resources|
|Materials||• • •||Within the classroom In the locality (workplaces, workshops, construction sites, businesses, industries etc). Extended activities||Charts, digital devices, print materials, online resources, common waste materials in the locality||• • •||Necessitates teacher creativity to improvise the resources Teacher to scan the environment to get resources for the strand Content can be implemented without incurring any cost.|
|Tools||• • •||Within the classroom In the locality (workplaces, workshops, construction sites, businesses, industries etc) Extended activities||Charts, digital devices, print materials, online resources, locally available tools such as household tools, farming tools||• •||As with materials (above) Necessitates parental involvement.|
|Drawing||• • •||Within the classroom In the locality (workplaces, workshops, construction sites, businesses, industries etc) Extended activities||Charts, digital devices, print materials, online resources, Drawing papers, Geometrical sets (used in mathematics)||• • •||Requires geometrical sets which are also used in mathematics Necessitates teacher creativity to improvise the resources May be implemented without any cost.|
|•||Necessitates parental involvement.|
|Energy Resources||• • •||Within the classroom In the locality (workplaces, workshops, construction sites, businesses, industries etc). Extended activities||Charts, digital devices, print materials, online resources||• • •||Necessitates teacher creativity to improvise the resources Teacher to scan the environment to get resources for the strand May be implemented without any cost|
|•||Necessitates parental involvement.|