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Outdoor activities are done outside class. They enhance learning through nature. Suitable sites for these activities are mountain sides, rocky areas, near water bodies like rivers.


  • While choosing suitable places for outdoor activities, you should consider;

i. Accessibility for learners with varied needs. ii.      Services and amenities (toilets, water e.t.c).

  1. Cost.
    1. Security.
      1. Weather (rainy or sunny season).
      1. Mode of transport.
      1. Location (convenience).
    1. Outdoor activities help us to find peace in nature, have fun, learn and relax.
    1. An outdoor activity should include all the activities from departure to coming back.
    1. The following is a two days sample of outdoor activity programme;
Day 18 am – 11 amTravelling to Masai Mara Park.
 11 am – 12 noonArrival and setting up tents.
 1 pm – 4 pmGame drive
 4 pm – 6 pmVisiting Masai Mara market.
 6 pm – 8 pmDinner.
 8 pm – 9 pmA recap of the day.
 9 pm – 6 amSleeping and waking up time.
Day 2am – 7 am am – 9 am 9 am – 12 noon   12 noon – 1 pm 1 pm – 4 pmMorning workout (aerobics). Take bath and breakfast. Hiking and team building activities. Lunch. Travelling back.

Health measures to observe before taking off for the activity.

  1. Clean food packaging.
    1. Pack boiled water.
    1. Wash hands as they pack the food.
    1. Clean the raw food such as fruits before packaging.
    1. Dispose off waste appropriately.

Health measures to observe during the outdoor activity.

  1. Cover the drinking water all the time.
    1. Store the food in a clean and dry place.
    1. Ensure that food is well cooked, especially meat.
    1. Do not congest or overcrowd.
    1. Sleep in a well-ventilated place.
    1. Wash hands all the time especially when handling and eating food.
    1. Ensure the wash rooms are kept clean.

Safety measures to observe before taking off for the activity.

  1. All persons going for the activity should make sure they are in good health.
    1. Have a well-equipped First Aid kit.
    1. Take the learners through basic First Aid and fire drill.
    1. Write a letter to inform the head teacher and the security team.
    1. Inform the parents and guardians to get consent.
    1. The lead person should be a good first aider.
    1. Have a programme ready for the activity.
    1. Inspect the area to go to in advance.

Safety measures to observe during the outdoor activity.

  1. Do not move away from the team without permission from the team lead.
    1. Avoid areas of natural hazards.
    1. Do not wander alone to avoid getting lost.
    1. Devise coded language to alert for danger.
    1. Adjust the programme when adverse weather is noted.
    1. On arrival, acclimatize the learners to the surrounding.
    1. Have a fire rally point (assembly point).
    1. Arrive early to avoid inconveniences.
    1. Always observe discipline.

Tracking signs.

  • These are objects or markers used to help a group move without getting lost during outdoor activity.
    • It is a method of communication between different groups by giving directions in an outdoor activity.
    • The signs are made from small rocks, stones, wood and sticks.

Importance of tracking signs for an outdoor activity. a) To show the direction followed.

  • To warn about dangers ahead.
    • To inform whether you have arrived at the campsite.
    • To find someone if they get lost.
    • Signs are easy to understand.

Roles and responsibilities.

These are duties or work each member does when in an outdoor activity. It is important to be in groups with group leaders assigned. Each member has a role to play in the group.

Qualities of a group leader.

▪ Should have a positive attitude towards others.

▪ Must be well disciplined.

▪ Should have effective communication skills.

▪ Must be quick in thinking.

▪ Readily inspires others.

▪ A committed person.

▪ Should be good in decision making.

▪ Good in time keeping.

▪ Has integrity.

▪ Creative.

Responsibilities of a group leader.

  • Holding group members accountable.
  • Sharing work among group members.
  • Helping in resolving conflict.
  • Peer counselor.
  • Advising team members.

Roles of the other members of the group.

  1. Fetching firewood.
  2. Cooking.
  3. Pitching the tents.
  4. Washing utensils.
  5. Laying tracks.

Conflict Resolution.

A conflict is a serious disagreement or quarrels between members of a group.

Conflict Resolution are ways a group settles their quarrels and disagreements during outdoor activity.

People have different views about issues and all are entitled to be considered. Conflicts should be settled in a friendly manner.

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Causes of conflicts in a group.

  1. Poor communication.
  2. Unfriendly relationships.
  3. Lack of enough space for all team members.
  4. Disagreements in power.
  5. Unwillingness to share resources.
  6. Lack of planning.
  7. Poor selection of a leader.
  8. Favoring some group members.

Consequences of conflicts in a group.

  1. Misunderstanding among the group members.
  2. Group members often quarrel.
  3. Members disagree.
  4. Some members feel frustrated and angry.
  5. Criticism and lack of support.
  6. Tension amongst members.
  7. Some group members may not want to play with others.

Ways of avoiding conflicts.

  • Giving support and encouragement to group members.
  • Job sharing.
  • making use of volunteers.

Ways of Resolving Conflict.

  1. Talking openly about your feelings.
  2. Listening to each other.
  3. Discussing different solutions as a group.
  4. Being fair to each other.
  5. Asking for forgiveness when you are on the wrong.
  6. Learning to walk away when nothing else works.

Food preservation.

Food preservation refers to how food is either treated or handled to ensure it stops or

slows from being spoilt.

If properly preserved or handled, food can go for a long period without getting spoilt.

Methods of preserving food;

  • Drying.
  • Canning.
  • Heating.
  • Boiling.
  • Bottling.
  • Salting.
  • Smoking.
  • Fermentation.
  • Sugaring.
  • Freezing.

Different foods use different methods of preservation. During an outdoor activity, you should use the correct method of food preservation depending on the food you have carried.

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