▪ These are injuries that occur during sports, athletic activities or exercising. a) Closed wound.
This is an injury on the body where no bleeding takes place on the skin. Tissue damage and bleeding occur under the skin surface.
Closed wound occurs when you are hit or bumped. A bruise is an example of a closed wound.
Safety precaution when addressing a closed wound.
- Wear protective gloves before dressing a closed wound.
- Wash your hands before and after dressing a wound.
- Dispose materials and equipment used in dressing wounds.
How to manage a closed wound to avoid infection.
- Rest the wounded part.
- Ice application to reduce any swelling and pain.
- Compress the wound.
- Elevate or raise the wounded part.
Sprain is stretching or tearing of ligaments.
Ligaments join bones together to form joints2.
Sprains may occur in any part of the body near the joints but mostly at the wrist, thumb, ankle and knee joints. Signs and symptoms of a sprain.
- Swelling of the affected ligament.
- Sprain causes pain. iii. It is difficult to move the affected joints.
- Hearing or feeling a pop sound in your joint at the time of injury.
- The affected area feels warmer when touched.
- The injured area becomes stiff.
Management of sprain injury.
i. Rest, ice application, compression and elevation. ii. Avoid vigorous activities until the sprain heals.
- For wrist, thumb, knees and ankle sprains, compress the area with an elastic wrap or bandage. Crutches can also be used to give support for ankle and knee sprains.
- If the sprain is serious, medical and surgical treatment may be required.
A strain is an overstretched, torn or twisted tendon or muscle.
Strain mostly affects the lower leg muscles, thigh muscles, feet muscles, arm muscles and back muscles.
Signs and symptoms of strain. a. Pain.
- It is difficult to move the injured part because of pain.
- Skin colour changes where the strain is located.
- Muscle cramping.
- Muscle weakness.
Management of strain injury.
- Protect the strained muscle from further injuries.
- Rest the strained muscle.
- Apply ice on the strained muscle for at least 20 minutes in every hour.
- Gently compress with ice or other elastic bandage to provide support and decrease swelling.
- Elevate or raise the injured part to prevent swelling.
Two-person support method.
- Two person support method is where an injured person is carried by two people.
- The method is done by;
- The rescuers stand on either side of the injured person.
- They place their hands on the injured person’s waist.
- The injured person’s arms are placed on the rescuers’ shoulders.
- The rescuers and the injured person all face the same direction.
- The injured person is supported by the two as they move slowly.
- The method is done by;