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                  Frisbee is a game that is played using a disc. It is also called ultimate.

Two handed rim catch.

  • A two handed rim catch is a style or technique used when receiving a disc from another player.
  • It is the best catching method when the disc comes above the shoulder height.

However, you can also use it when the disc is below the waist.

  • The catcher should concentrate on the leading edge of the disc and grab it.
  • To catch the disc when it is above the shoulder, stretch your arms up, open your hands as thumbs face down.
  • When catching the disc which is below the waist, open your hands with thumbs facing up and fingers pointing towards the ground. ❖ Bend your knees and catch the disc near the ground by its edge.

Cutting in Frisbee.

  • Cutting is a technique used to confuse defenders or opponents.
  • It involves running and changing direction so that you throw the disc safely to your partner.

How to perform cutting in Frisbee.

  1. The player with the disc runs a short distance, then stops and changes direction.
  2. The opponent ends up not being able to catch up.

Marking in Frisbee.

Marking is a technique used to control the ball carrier and limiting them from throwing the disc.

How to perform marking in Frisbee.

  1. Stand slightly in front of the thrower.
  2. Keep your arms extended and bent slightly with hands near the waist level.
  3. Legs should be shoulder width apart, with knees bent and weight should be on your balls of the feet to enable easy movement. The arms should be bent at the elbows.
  4. Move your hands up and down to prevent the opponent from throwing the disc towards the intended direction.
  5. When the person you are marking manages to throw the disc, shout to your teammates “up or air” to alert them to intercept or block.

Pivoting in Frisbee.

Pivoting is done with one foot maintaining contact on the ground while turning and stepping with the other foot.

Pivoting is done to give the player a better chance of passing the disc to the teammates.

How to perform Pivoting.

  1. Stand with legs apart and firmly place one foot on the ground.
  2. The other leg is lifted from the ground.
  3. Turn and move to any direction with the leg which is lifted.
  4. Step on the ground with the moving leg.
  5. Do not move the leg which is firmly placed on the ground.

Spirit of the Game.

  • This is the mindful behavior that players practice before the game, during and after the game.
  • It involves:
  1. Knowledge of the rules (there is no referee in the game).
    1. Fairness (when there is a mistake, it is accepted and settled).
    1. Safe play.
    1. Space awareness.
    1. Clear and calm communication.

Note; Through “spirit of the game”, moral lessons like honesty, fairness, politeness, teamwork among others are taught.


A) Breaststroke.

Breaststroke is a swimming style that is performed with the body facing down in a streamlined position.

The arms perform semi circular movements and the legs perform a frog like kick, the head bobs in and out of water.

Streamlining the body.

  1. For the body to be streamlined, place yourself horizontally in water. Let your toes point to the wall behind you. Stretch your arms out in front of you. The fingers should point towards the wall ahead.
  2. Keep the head facing down towards the bottom of the pool.
  3. Stay in that position for a few seconds to help your body get used to the water.

Arm Action.

  1. for arm action, start from the streamlined position. Turn both palms outward without bending the elbows. Then push them out and slightly down.
  2. When your arms form a “Y” shape with your body, bend elbows and bring hands down and back towards your face.

Leg action.

  1. For the leg action, begin by pointing the feet outwards from the body by rotating the ankle. Bring the heels towards your bottom as you bend hands down and back towards the shin.
  2. Extend your knees slightly past the width of your shoulders. Push your legs straight back behind you and bring them back together.
    1. Backstroke.

It is a swimming style performed with the body lying on the back and streamlined.

The head is submerged above half level of the ears and the face is left off the water surface at all times.

Body positioning.

  • Lie with your back on the water and streamline your body.
    • Put your head half way into the water.
    • Lower your legs and hips slightly.
    • Put your legs together and straighten them.

Leg action.

  1. Once you are in a stable position, start kicking.
  2. As you raise one leg, kick using the other leg. Keep alternating the kicks.
  3. For best results, kick from your hips.

Arm action.

  1. As you start kicking forward, keep the arms at your side then stretch one arm in front.
  2. When the hand contacts the water, bring it down and pull outward to move yourself forward. Raise your other arm to do the same.
    1. Sidestroke.

Sidestroke is a swimming style where the swimmer lies on the side in the water. It is used for life saving , leisure and for swimming long distances.

Body position.

  • Start from a glide side position.
    • Lay one side of your body straight in the water.
    • Drop one shoulder in the water with your hip below the water surface.

Head positioning.

  1. Position your head in line with your spine.
  2. Half of your face should be in the water, the other half of the face above the water.
  3. One side of the face and ear should be in the water.

Arm action.

  1. Extend the leading arm forward with the palm facing downwards. Place your arm on your side.
  2. Palm of the leading arm pushes water backwards and downwards. The hand then moves upwards and inwards.
  3. Your other arm moves forward, bending at the elbow.
  4. Your leading hand moves forward in a straight line with palms rotating from upward to a downward facing position.
  5. Your other hand performs a semi-circular backward sweep.

Leg action.

  1. Bend your lower leg and move the foot towards your back. At the same time, straighten the upper leg.
  2. Make “scissors kicks” with your legs to move the body forward.


Individual balances.

  • Gymnastics include general categories of movement such as travel, weight transfer, balance, jumping, flight or landing.
  • These skills can be developed with integration of other body aspects and movement elements. For example locomotor and non-locomotor movements, space and effort aspects.

1. Hand balance into splits and hand walk.

▪ Hand balance into splits and hand walk is standing upright with the support of the hands with toes pointing up, splitting the legs sideways and making few steps.

▪ It helps in developing; balance, coordination, reaction time, flexibility and many more.

How to perform hand or frog balance into splits.

  1. Get into a squat position and place hands on the ground in front of the feet, next to the toes.
  2. Move the knees so that they rest against the bent elbows for support. With your knees in this position, they will help carry some of your body weight to make the hold possible.
  3. Lean forward into the hold taking weight onto the hands so that the feet are raised completely from the floor.
  4. Hold the position for 30 seconds.

How to perform a hand walk.

  1. Once you are stable on your hand balance position, try to move one hand forward. Make short steps as you lean the body slightly in the direction you are moving to. Move the other hand.
  2. Once you have made several steps or you are tired, lower your body by bending the knees. Land with your feet on the ground.

Hand balance into splits and hand walk helps us to develop the following physical fitness components:

  1. Balance – the body is able to stay upright and in control of movement.
    1. Coordinating – ability to move two or more body parts under control.
    1. Reaction time – ability to respond quickly to a command or stimulus.
    1. Flexibility – ability to move the joints easily without getting injuries.

2. Shoulder roll.

This is a kind of roll that is performed over one shoulder.

It prevents you from hurting your head, hands or knees if you fall on the ground.

How to perform shoulder rolls.

  1. Kneel down on the ground with legs apart.
  2. Bend the legs at the knees and body to lean on one side of the shoulder.
  3. Push the body forward while placing one arm diagonally across the body.
  4. Tilt the head to the side as you tuck the chin to the chest. e) Roll over.

3. Through vault into forward roll.

It is a movement done by going over a vaulting box or an obstacle.

Forward roll is a movement that involves rolling of the body forward on the ground or on a mat.

Learning points for through vault into forward roll.

  • Have a fast run up and take off powerfully on both feet.
  • Hands together on the vaulting box.
  • Hips and feet horizontal.
  • Tuck the legs up to the chest.
  • Swing the knees through your arms and bring the legs forward to prepare landing.
  • The moment your body touches the ground, push over your back so that the body rolls forward and hips are pushed over the head.

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4. Side vault.

It involves jumping over an obstacle or object with the hands placed on the object and the legs being moved away on the side of the obstacle while jumping.

How side vault is performed;

  1. Make a short run towards the obstacle or vault.
  2. Place both hands on one end of the obstacle.
  3. Jump over the obstacle with the legs on one side.
  4. Release the arm that is closer to the legs.
  5. Then come down as you release the other hand.
  6. Run out or move smoothly from the vault.

Optional Games and Sports-Physical Health Education Grade 5 Lesson Notes

5. Cartwheel.

It is a sideways circle movement of the body.

It is performed by bringing the hands to the ground one at a time while the body inverts.

Steps in performing cartwheels.

  1. Place your dominant leg in front and bend it slightly as the other leg remains straight. Arms should be straight above the head.
  2. Place your hands on the ground with fingers well spread out.
  3. Push your feet over your head one at a time. The foot that takes off first should land first.
  4. Land in such a way that you are facing the opposite direction. Your arms should be over your head near your ears. Your front leg should be slightly bent and your back leg straight.

6. Round off.

This is a movement of turning the body parts from one point to another in the air. The take off can either be off hands or off feet.

How round off is done;

  1. Start in an upright standing position with one leg forward and arms lifted straight above your head with palms facing forward.
  2. Bend your body trunk forward and lift up the back leg.
  3. With palms placed firmly on the ground, rotate the hands towards each other.
  4. Put legs together at the top and push them through so that you land facing the direction you started from.

7. Five action sequences.

A sequence is the performance of a series of gymnastics skills in a continuous movement. The finishing point of one skill marks the starting point of the next skill.

                 Five action sequences therefore, is performing five activities continuously which is a

combination of spring balance, vault, roll and balance.

The purpose of the sequence is to connect movements into smooth and flowing order without stopping.


Skill related fitness.

  1. Balance.

Balance is the ability to control or stabilize the body when a person is standing still or moving.

Fitness is a condition in which an individual has enough energy to perform a task without getting tired.

These are some of the skills that can be done to develop balance; a) T balance.

  • V balance.
    • Hand balance.
    • Crab walk.
    • Wheelbarrow walk.
    • Crouch balance.

Balance helps us to perform activities without falling and injuring ourselves.

  • Agility.

Agility is the ability to change and control the direction and position of the body while maintaining a constant rapid motion.

Some of the activities that are performed to develop agility are;

  1. Forward running.
    1. High knee running.
    1. Lateral running.
    1. Shuttle running.
    1. Pivoting.
    1. Reaction time.

Reaction time is the ability to reach or respond quickly to what you hear, see or feel.

Good reaction requires one to;

  1. Be alert and attentive.
    1. Respond quickly without delaying.

It is important in daily life because it enables us to perform activities like running, walking and playing quickly when given command or signal.

Some of the activities that improve reaction time are; sitting and standing, ‘on to your marks’, ‘Set and Go’ command, run and stop. Reaction time is very important when driving, playing sports and running away from dangerous situations.

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  • Sit and reach.

Sit and reach test is a simple measurement of lower back and arm string flexibility. Flexibility is the ability to bend without breaking. To measure the sit and reach test you require;

  1. Sit and reach the test box.
    1. Metre ruler or tape measure.

How to perform sit and reach test;

  1. Sit on the floor with legs fully extended.
    1. Place one hand on top of the other, slowly bend forward and reach as far as possible holding the stretch for two seconds.
    1. Record the distance that you were able to reach in centimeters. Do this three times.
    1. Calculate the average of the three distances to tell your flexibility.

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