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Ball Games

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  1. Push pass.

When passing the ball in soccer using push pass;

  • Use a flat ground which is free from dangerous objects. ● Wear a suitable sports kit.
    • Perform enough warm up and cool down activities before and after the game.
    • Follow your teachers’ instructions correctly.
  • Wall pass.

When playing wall pass skill;

  • Communicate loud and clear ‘’wall pass’’ among your teammates involved in the pass.
    • A minimum of two teammates should be involved in the passing in order to move the ball past an opponent player.
    • One player makes a good pass and sprints into the open space in order to receive the ball from the second teammate.
    • The player who receives the pass should sprint behind the defender. The teammate should then pass the ball in the space in front of him or her.
  • Outside of the foot pass.

When passing the ball using outside of the foot;

  • Approach the ball with the upper body slightly bent.
    • Bring the non-kicking leg to the same level with the ball but slightly away from the kicking foot.
    • Shift the body weight to the supporting leg and slightly bend it.
    • Turn the toes of the kicking foot inwards to face the non kicking leg.
    • Swing the kicking leg and strike the ball with the middle of outside foot.
    • Ensure the pass is directed at the intended target or teammate.

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Facility, equipment and positioning.

A volleyball court is rectangular in shape. It measures 18m long and 9m wide.

It is divided into two halves by a centerline.

A net is placed at the center; each court is divided into two by an attack line which is 3m from the center line and 6m from the back court.

Basic equipment used in playing volleyball games are; net, ball and two posts to support the net.

Each team must have 6 members playing at the start of the game.

Improvising volleyball equipment.

Improvising is making an item using what is available because you do not have what is needed.

Equipment are things needed for a particular purpose or activity.

How to improvise the volleyball posts.

  1. Cut long wood from any tree available. Make sure it is smooth and about 1.93 metres long. Metal material can also be used as posts.
    1. Make holes on the ground to support the posts.
    1. Insert the posts in the holes and make sure they are firm.

How to improvise a volleyball net.

  1. Materials such as; nylon ropes, sisal fibre and old clothes cut into long and thin pieces can be used to improvise a volleyball net.
    1. Volleyball nets can be twined using sisal fibre or old pieces of clothes that are cut into thin pieces.

Underarm serve.

  • This is a type of service in volleyball where the player serving the ball holds it about waist high.
    • The player slightly tosses the ball up and hits it with the opposite hand using an under hand motion.
    • The hand hits the ball at the bottom with a closed fist.
    • Tossing is throwing the ball upward above the waist before striking it.

When applying an underarm serve;

  1. Stand behind the service line with your feet apart.
    1. Hold the ball with the non-dominant hand, slightly above the waist and in front of the body.
    1. As you toss the ball, swing the other hand backward and forward to hit the ball across the net.

Note; non-dominant hand is the hand that is note active.

The Dig.

  • This is a way of receiving or passing the ball that is below the waist.
    • It involves standing in line with the incoming ball.
    • Hand fist of one hand overlapped over the fingers of the other hand and extended forward but below the waist.

How to perform the dig pass;

  1. Stand with your feet shoulder width apart for balance.
    1. Put arms together and join the hands, locking the wrist and elbow joints.
    1. Contact the ball with the part of the arms just above the hands.
    1. Move the hands upward and forward to give the ball an upward motion.

The volley.

  • This is a way of passing a ball that has been received at the full hand level.
  • It is used to keep the ball in play, set the ball for an attack and for passing the ball over the net.

How to perform the volley;

  1. Stand with your feet apart for balance.
  2. Knees bent and body slightly leaning forward.
  3. Elbows bent with palms facing upwards.
  4. Contact the ball just in front of the forehead.
  5. Push the ball up with force using fingers. Pass it to a teammate or over the net.


Facility and Position of Players.

Kabaddi is also called a game of struggle because it is one player against 7 players. The aim of the game is to score points by raiding into the opponent court touching as many defensive players as possible without being caught by any of the opponents.

Defensive players are called antis while attacking players are raiders.

The Kabaddi field of play measures 8 metres by 11 metres for junior boys and girls.

Each team has seven players at the start of the game.

Each team selects a raider who runs across the centre line to the other team’s court. As the raider enters the opponent’s court, he or she chants ‘Kabaddi’, ‘Kabaddi’, ‘Kabaddi’ and tries to tag any member of the opposing team.

Once the raider tags a member or members of the opponent team, he or she runs back to their court. A point is awarded.


  • This involves getting into the opponent’s court chanting ‘Kabaddi, Kabaddi, Kabaddi’ and trying to step or touch the opponent player.
  • The raider tries to touch an opponent player while the opponent player puts effort to prevent the raider from touching them.
  • The raider should be done with tagging a member from the opponent teamwithin  30 seconds.

Foot work.

  • This is the movement made by the raider with his or her feet during the course of the raid.
  • It is guided by the stance, body position, speed and the ability to bend in any direction.

How to perform footwork;

  1. Stand with one foot in front of the other.
  2. Position your body to face forward.
  3. Move forward with speed.
  4. Dodge the opponents to avoid being tagged.

Rules for successful footwork in Kabaddi;

  1. Each team should take turns to run across the centre line.
  2. Tag a member of the other team.
  3. Run back to your half court.

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Legal Touches.

In Kabaddi, legal touch means a raider touching any member of the defending team by any part of their body including clothes, shoes and any other part of the body.

Types of legal touches.

  1. Toe touch – it is when the raider touches the opponent’s foot using the toes and gets a point.
  2. Running hand touch – it is when the raider requires to move fast and stretch hands to touch the opponent before moving back.
  3. Frog jump – it is when the raider jumps above the opponent and tries to touch him or her.
  4. Scorpion kick – it is when the raider faces away from the opponent, he or she quickly curls the leg to touch the opponent.
  5. Dubki – raider escapes from the opponent by squatting below him or her to  avoid being tapped before reaching the half way line.


  • Cant is the chanting of “Kabadii” continuously once a raider is in the opponent’s  part of the field. If a raider stops chanting, he or she is out.
    • Cant is also the capacity of the lungs to hold the breath which is required to maintain raid for a longtime.


  • This is the taking of turns in sending a player into the opponents’ court to try tagging them and win a point.
  • It is also a repeated clear sound of the word “Kabadii” in one single breath during raid by the raider.

Roles of Raiders.

  1. Try and touch as many players in the opponent team as possible in order to score, tap them out and score points.
  2. He or she must say “Kabadii” several times until a tag is made or he has faulted.


Facility and Equipment.

This is a game of rugby that involves tagging as opposed to tackling.

It is a non-contact game in which each player wears a belt that has two tags or small loops attached to it.

It is played by a player trying to protect his or her tag as he or she runs and passes the ball to a partner. The opponent tries to stop them from scoring by pulling the tags from their waist or belt.

Tag Rugby field of play is rectangular in shape. Its standard measurements are 70 metres by 50 metres. The pitch size varies depending on the number of players and their age i.e a pitch of 55-60 metres long and 30-35 metres wide is suitable for grade five learners.

It is played by two teams of 7 players per team for two halves of each 20 minutes.

Equipment used in tag rugby are: tag belts, rugby ball, sportswear and training cones.

Handkerchief, pieces of clothes or ribbons can be used to improvise tags for Tag Rugby.

Passing and ball carriage.

These are styles or techniques for playing tag rugby. It involves passing the ball to a teammate and how to carry the ball. Passing the ball in a tag rugby game.

  1. The ball can only be passed sideways or backwards through the air. It cannot be handed over to another player or teammate.
  2. The ball cannot be snatched from the carrier, it can only be intercepted.

Ball carriage.

  1. Carriage is holding the ball under the armpit firmly and moving with it. It is done to avoid losing the ball to the opponents.
  2. Lateral pass is when the player collects the ball from a tap or roll ball and passes it to teammates on either side.
  3. Hold the ball with both hands, turn to the receiver and swing the ball across the front of your body.
  4. Direct the ball to the chest level of the receiver.
  5. Release the ball as the upper body turns and the arms extend.


This is moving with the ball in your hands away from the opponent.

In Tag Rugby, players run sideways more since most of the opponents are focusing ahead. This helps them to avoid being tagged.

Tagging and Offside rule.

▪ Tagging is pulling out one of the two tags or ribbons attached to the ball carrier’s waist or belt.

▪ Only the player with the ball can be tagged.

▪ The opponent should hold the tag above their head and shout “tag” after removing it from the ball carrier’s waist. Then the referee shouts ”pass” to confirm the tag.

▪ The ball carrier cannot defend the tags from being taken using hands, they can only doge taggers.

▪ When the ball carrier is tagged, they have to pass the ball to the teammatewithin  three seconds.

▪ If tagged near the try line, they are allowed one step to score a try.

▪ When a ball carrier is tagged and passes the ball, he or she must take the tag and put it back. No play without a tag.

▪ Offside is when a player is in a prohibited area during the game.

▪ The offside rule occurs immediately when a tag has been made.

▪ All defenders must go back to their side.

▪ A defender should not knowingly wait to block or intercept a pass from the attacking team after a tag.


  1. A score in Tag Rugby is called a try and is awarded 1 point.
  2. To score a try, a player must carry the ball over the opposing goal line and place the ball down on the ground.
  3. Opponents must remove the ball carrier’s tag to stop them from scoring.
  4. A player cannot dive over the try line to ground the ball.
  5. If a player drops the ball over the try line, a try is not given. The ball is given to the opponents.

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