Games and Sports.
Athletics: Track Events.
Track events are athletics events that involve running or walking around an athletics track.
The track events include the following.
- Medium sprint start.
- Elongated start.
- Run through finish technique.
- Improvising the relay baton.
- Visual baton exchange technique.
- Phases in hurdling.
Sprints are short races that require an athlete to make use of crouch stance when in starting position.
The main types of crouch start in this level are medium sprint start and elongated sprint start.
In an elongated start, the knee of the rear leg is placed slightly behind the front foot heel and the feet are spread out slightly wider than medium start. Run through finish technique is one of the three types of common methods of finishing races.
1In run through finish technique, the athlete crosses the finish line at top speed when the trunk is leaning forward with shoulders and chest.
Hurdling phases include.
- Take off.
- Flight or hurdles clearance.
- Box drill.
- Single leg box drill.
- Reaction drill.
Medium Start In Sprints.
How to perform a medium sprint start.
- At the command ‘’on your marks’’, the body should be in a crouch position.
- Do not touch either the start line or the ground beyond it with your hands or feet.
- Place your hands shoulder width apart on the ground.
- Place the foot of the leading leg behind the starting line with the knee bent.
Place the knee of the back leg beside the foot of the front leg.
- Wait for the next command, ‘’set’’. Raise hips to a position above the shoulders.
- Head and knees should be in line with the spine.
- Shoulders should be placed slightly forward than the hands. ✔ At ‘’go’’ command, leave the starting line
Elongated start in races.
How to perform an elongated start.
- During ‘’on your mark’’ command;
- Place hands on the ground shoulder width apart and behind the starting line.
- Place one foot behind the starting line. iii. Place the knee of the back leg slightly behind the heel of the front foot.
iv. Spread out the feet slightly wider than in the medium sprint start.
- During ‘’set’’ command, lift the knee of the back leg off the ground ready for the last command, ‘’go’’ and leave the starting point.
▪ Push start.
▪ Pedal the bicycle drill.
Importance of participating in Running Activities. ❖ Improves mental health.
- Strengthens the lungs.
- Helps prevent the body from being attacked by diseases such as high blood pressure.
- Helps control body weight.
- Makes the bones stronger.
- Helps to relax the body.
- Improves blood circulation.
- Helps in relieving stress.
- Helps in increasing confidence.
Run through finish technique.
This is one of the types of finish that the athletes use to reach the end of a race at full speed.
It is performed by;
- Maintaining top speed as you approach the finish line.
- High knees lift maintaining full speed.
- Drive your arms harder through the final metres of the race.
- Continue running past the finish line.
- High knees lift maintaining full speed.
Improvising the Relay Baton.
Relay batons are hollow inside so as to make them light in weight, not to be heavy, to make it easy to carry.
It is painted bright in colour so as to make it more visible, be seen better.
Safety measures observed while improvising Relay Baton.
▪ Paint and allow it to dry.
▪ Clean the working area.
▪ Burn or throw to the dustbin the waste products.
▪ Wash your hands.
Visual Baton Change.
When performing visual baton change technique;
- Runners changing the relay baton must be in high speed.
- The visual baton change should be done smoothly without dropping the baton.
- The runner receiving the baton should stretch his or her arm with the hand being open and look at the runner bringing the baton.
- Positioning of the hand of the runner receiving the baton:
- Stretched out and behind.
- Open and facing up.
- How the runners changing the baton position themselves:
- Running in motion.
- Legs apart at high speed.
HURDLES (approach, take off, flight, hurdle clearance and landing.) These include running and going over an obstacle at a speed.
Stages in hurdling.
- You are required to go over barriers called hurdles when in high speed.
- The following are the five stages in hurdling
- Approach – runner sprints towards the first hurdle after the start command.
- Take off – runner places the take-off foot about 20-35 cm from the top of the hurdle and quickly lifts the thigh of the leading leg to the chest and to go over edge appropriate hurdle.
- Flight – the body should be streamlined and take the shortest time possible.
- Hurdle clearance – runner goes over the hurdle with the toe of the leading foot pointing up and the foot of the leg behind being flat with toe pointing out.
- Landing- leading leg touches the ground with the back of the foot followed by the back leg.
a) Long Jump – it is used by athletes as a field event.
Athletes combine speed, strength and ability to jump as far as possible from a take-off point.
The following are the sections of the long jump facility.
- Runway – this is the sprinting or approach area.
- Take-off board – this is the point you jump from.
- Landing pit – this is a sand filled pit for safe landing. The
equipment found in the long jump facility include;
i. A 50 metre measuring tape. ii. A rake for leveling the sand pit.
Long Jump Technique.
Stages in Long Jump.
- Approach – the athlete runs along the runway using quick long strides.
- Take-off – placing one foot next to the take-off board or line and then lift the body off the ground.
- Flight – cycling action of the legs in the air to move the body.
- Landing – contacting or touching down on the landing pit area with both feet and knees bent.
● The following are the important rules to be followed for a good long jump;
- Takeoff foot must not cross the takeoff board or line.
- Use quick long strides, when running along the runway during approach.
- Land on the pit with knees bent and the head leaning forward with the hands in front.
A discus is an equipment used for throwing in athletics field events.
A discus facility has a throwing sector with a diameter of 2.5 metres and a landing sector.
There are different weights for discus. Boys under 13 years throw discus weighing 1 kilogram, while for girls it is 0.75 kilograms.
Other equipment found in the discus facility include:
- Marking flags or pegs – used to mark several throws made by players.
- Measuring tape – it is used for measuring length of the throws made by players.
- Score cards – they are used by the teacher to record the scores and other details of the players.
Standing Discus Technique.
It is a method used when performing a discus throw.
It is used to teach athletes how to throw a discus. This is done from a standing position.
Stages or phases of performing standing discus technique.
▪ Stand with the feet shoulder width apart.
▪ The left or right shoulder should point to the direction of throw. ii. Grip;
▪ The discus sits flat against the palm of the throwing hand.
▪ The fingers hold the edge of the discus.
▪ The thumb rests on the back of the discus. The discus is held in loose grip. iii. Swing;
▪ The non-throwing arm is extended towards the throwing direction.
▪ The throwing arm is extended back.
▪ Swing the discus and bring it on top of the palm of the non-throwing arm.
▪ Swing the hip, torso and shoulder while pivoting the back foot to the front. iv. Release and recovery;
▪ Continue to hold the correct grip.
▪ Step forward with the opposite foot to the throwing hand before releasing the discus.
▪ Release the discus from a comfortable height, not too high. ▪ As the discus is released, the non-throwing arm swings back for recovery.
Physical Health Education Grade 5 Notes-Games and Sports.
STRADDLE AND STRADDLE CROSS.
These are techniques in rope skipping.
Rope work involves skipping or jumping in different styles using a rope.
How to perform straddle and straddle cross rope skipping.
- Stand straight, shoulders level and head looking forward.
- Put the arms slightly forward and extend sideways.
- Grip the handle of the rope firmly and comfortably with your fingers, ready to make small circles with the wrists when swinging the rope.
- With elbows close to the body and knees slightly bent, swing the rope from behind the feet and jump to clear it.
- In straddle rope skipping, jump the rope with feet apart on the first rotation of the rope followed by jumping the rope with feet together on the next rotation. Keep repeating this rhythm but in a smooth and relax manner.
- In a straddle cross rope skipping, jump the rope alternating the right and left foot in front and back. Repeat the rhythm.
This is a technique used in performing rope skipping. The balls of the feet are used when performing the skill.
How to perform skier rope skipping.
- Stand straight with your feet shoulder width apart.
- Keep knees slightly bent and arms extended sideways.
- Keep the body weight well balanced on the balls of the feet.
- Grip the rope at the handle and lower it on the ground behind your feet. Swing the rope overhead and jump over it using small jumps.
- Continue with the small jumps but moving the feet when together and side to side.
This is a style for performing rope skipping where the heel is used when performing the skill.
How to perform heel taps rope skipping.
- Stand with knees slightly bent, feet shoulder width apart and arms extended sideways.
- With the body weight well balanced on the balls of the feet, swing the rope from behind the feet and jump up and down over the rope.
- As you continue jumping, begin to tap the ground with the heel of one foot and then keep alternating the feet.
SOFTBALL; Field, Equipment And Choosing Bat.
Softball is one of the batting games which is played between two teams on a large field, with nine players from each team.
The aim of the game is for a team to score more runs (points) than the other team by batting (hitting) a ball into play and running around the bases, touching each one in succession. The defending team is referred to as fielding team.
Parts of the field.
- Bases – these include 1st , 2nd , 3rd and home plate. The bases are made of rubber material and are square shaped while the home plate is 5 sided.
- Infield – this is the area around the four bases and the surface is generally grass.
- Outfield – this is the area outside the infield. It consists of left fielder, centre fielder and right fielder.
- Foul lines – two straight lines extending from the 1st and 3rd base lines that mark fair territory.
- Pitcher’s plate is placed at the middle of the diamond from which the pitcher throws the ball.
- Batter’s box – two long rectangular boxes marked near the home plate where a batter player must stay while batting. Softball equipment include:
- Batting helmet.
- Softball balls. iii. Fielding gloves. iv. Catcher’s mitts.
- Chest protector. vii. Sliding shorts. viii. Leg guard. ix. Uniform.
The positions of the players at the start of the softball game are:
i. Pitcher – position 1. ii. Catcher – position 2. iii. 1st base fielder – position 3.
- 2nd base fielder – position 4.
- 3rd base fielder – position 5.
- Shortstop – position 6.
- Left fielder – position 7.
- Centre fielder – position 8.
- Right fielder – position 9.
Note For the batting team, nine batters line up near the batting box ready to get into batters’ box in turns for batting. They must follow this order all through.
Responsibilities of infield players.
- Catching or collecting ground balls.
- Catching high balls.
- Throwing caught balls to various bases.
- Helping to cover the bases.
- Assisting each other (backing up).
- Tagging (touching using the hand holding the ball) the running batter.
Qualities of a good infield player.
- Keeps his or her eyes and mind alert on every ball thrown by the pitcher.
- Puts effort by going after the ball.
- Able to move quickly in all directions to collect the balls.
- Courageous enough to catch balls which have been hit hard.
Responsibilities of the outfield players. ❖ Catching all the flying balls.
- Fielding ground balls.
- Throwing balls to infielders at various bases. ❖ Backing up their teammates.
Qualities of a good outfield player.
- Ability to position themselves properly for different batting opponents and at different positions.
- Ability to make quick and good judgment on the direction of the balls batted.
- Have strong and accurate ability to throw balls. ❖ Outfielders should be fast.
Ready Position and Footwork.
Ready position is when the fielder player positions the body in a way that he or she is ready to move to any direction when the ball is released.
How to perform ready position and footwork in fielding.
- Stand with legs apart and get the body low to the ground by squatting.
- Balance the body weight by using the balls of your feet.
- Wear a glove on the left hand. Stretch the gloved hand further towards the ball.
- Bending low to the ground with the back straight and head up, face the batter, stay alert and focused,
- In that position move your feet forward, backward and side to side.
THROWING: Overhand throw.
How to perform overhand throw:
- Standing upright with the ball in your throwing hand and feet apart, face your target.
- Turn sideways about 90 degrees to your right side or left side if you are left handed.
- Lift your non-throwing arm to point at your target. Shift your weight to your back foot and lift your throwing arm in a way that it is near your ear.
- Twist your chest as you bring the arm over the shoulder.
- Release the ball with enough force aiming at your target.
- Catching a ground ball.
Lower your body into ready position.
Bring the hand with the glove near the ground with the tips of your fingers touching the ground to prevent the ball from rolling under the glove.
Place your other hand without the glove on the bottom edge of your glove. Move towards the oncoming ball and close your glove to catch the ball.
- Catching an aerial ball or high ball. Move in front of the ball.
Hold your hand with the glove straight up.
With your eyes focused on the oncoming ball, open your mitts or glove to catch the ball. Quickly place your other hand at the side of the glove.
BATTING: Stance And Grip.
▪ When performing stance and grip during batting:
- Hold the bat at the handle with your fingers.
- If you are right handed, set your right hand higher up on the handle and place your left hand close to the base of the handle.
- Place your feet wider than shoulder width apart as you stand.
- Bend your knees to be in a comfortable position.
- Ensure your toes and shoulders are facing the home plate or the direction the ball is coming from.
- Raise your arms until hands are at ear-level and the bat is resting on top of the right shoulder.
Note: when playing the softball game, each of the two teams alternate in batting and fielding roles. The teams compete to earn scores known as ‘’runs’’. The team which gets more ‘’runs’’ becomes the winner.
The Swing Technique.
When performing the swing technique:
- Stand with your feet apart. Knees bent and toes facing the home plate.
- Stretch your arms with elbows out and use the correct grip on the handle of the bat.
- Bend the upper part of the body slightly forward.
- With hands firmly gripping the bat by the handle, move the bat up and above the shoulder.
- Swing the bat to hit the ball by the middle part of the barrel of the bat with enough force.
- Ensure the ball is hit towards the fair territory of the softball field.
- Make the follow through by moving one step forward.
Base Running And Sliding.
- Take quick strides as you run to the next nearest base.
- Use strong arm action as you run in order to have maximum speed.
- Run straight to the base and then round it.
- As you run around it, step on the inside corner of the base.
- Run as close to the base line as possible.
Base running and sliding skill.
- Run at full speed to the next base, when you are 4 to 5 steps away from the base, bend your knees. Shift your weight to the left side of your body and get low to the ground. As you get low to the ground, fold your left leg under your right leg to form shape 4 as you slide on the ground.
NOTE: The thigh and shin of the left leg are the parts of the body used in sliding.
- Lift up your hands past the head with arms stretched out to balance the body while sliding. This will also help to prevent the defender from easily tagging your hands.
- Tuck your chin in your chest to prevent your head from flopping backward and hit the ground.
Importance of sliding in softball.
▪ To prevent injury – players can slide to avoid collision with whoever is making a tag at 1st , 2nd or 3rd base. ▪ Sliding is the quickest way to the base – running to the base might be slow; so sliding will help the player get to the base faster. ▪ To avoid a tag – a player can slide away from the person tagging. ▪ To make a diversion – if a player wants to make a change of direction around the base.
fielding, Throwing, Catching and Stamping.
The Rounders game is played by players referred to as fielders and batters. The fielders try to put out the batters by stamping the post they are running to.
The game should be played between two teams with a maximum of 15 players.
Throwing the ball in rounders.
There are two throwing skills in rounders. They include:
- Over arm throwing – it is mostly used by the fielders to pass long balls to other team members. The ball is passed to a teammate who is near the base which is in front of the leading batter. It is mostly used for the balls which have been hit far from the post.
- While using the over arm throw, grip the ball in a way that your first and second fingers are over the two seams.
- Direct your shoulder towards the teammates you are passing the ball to and release the ball.
- Under arm throwing – it is mostly used by the fielders when making short passes to the teammate in order to stamp opponents. Grip the ball as it is done in an over arm throw between the fingers and the thumb. The player swings the arm forward as he or she steps in front to release the ball with a flick of the wrist.
Catching the ball in rounders.
Catching is done by the fielders when receiving a thrown ball in order to stamp the post and put the batter out.
The golden rule of catching is to keep the eyes on the ball from the moment it leaves the pitcher’s hands and follow it all over.
When catching the ball, stretch out your arms in front of the chest. Thumbs should point each other. When the ball gets in your palms, close your fingers over it to prevent it from bouncing out.
Stamping in rounders.
- Stamping is touching a post by the fielder using the hand with the ball.
- Fielders stamp the nearest post that the batter is approaching so as to stamp him or her out.
- Once a batter is stamped out, he or she is out of the game.
Technical, tactical approaches and rules of the game.
Technical approaches are skills that the players apply to ensure they win the game. These skills include; catching, throwing and stamping the post.
Tactical approaches are methods that are planned and used to achieve a particular goal.
Examples of tactical approaches are; Spread all over the field of play, Communicate with your teammates loudly and clear, Work as a team, Be quick and alert.
Rules of the rounders’ game.
- It is played between two teams. One team bats while the other team fields and bowls.
- The game starts when the bowler bowls the ball to the batter who hits the ball forward on the rounder’s pitch. The batter runs around tapping every post before the fielders can stamp the nearest post.
- If the batter reaches 2nd or 3rd post in one hit. The team scores half a rounder.If the batter reaches the 4th post in one hit. The batter scores full rounder.
- A batter is put out when he or she leaves the nearest post and run to the next post and it is stamped before he or she gets there.