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● Research has proved that pre-service training alone does not equip teachers with all the necessary knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes for effective teaching. 
● Teachers improve themselves with time through experience, benchmarking others, or voluntarily going back to class to enhance their knowledge. 
● However, this alone is not adequate since not all do this voluntarily.
● Hence the need for continuous professional development of teachers to bridge the gap.
● Teacher Professional development refer to either formal or informal activities that registered teachers undertake in order to continuously improve their pedagogical skills, management skills and learner outcomes.
● Teachers in Kenya have been involved in TPD programs for many years.. But such programs have had two major shortcomings :
    i) All were found not to have common learning outcomes based on uniform standards and
    ii)The programmes were not continuous i.e. One- off or offered for few years only

Purpose of Teacher Professional Development

The purpose of TPD programs is to continuously equip and improve teachers’ competencies for enhanced learning outcomes in Kenyan schools.


● Constitution of Kenya- Education is human right
● Vision 2030: Under social pillar, Kenya aspire to be a Knowledge base economy country
● Basic Education Act:, 2013: Free and compulsory basic education to all learners- Quality education
● SDG 4 : Access to quality education through quality teaching and life-long learning
● 21st century demands: learners in the 21st century are confronted with increasingly complex social- cultural, economic, technological, and global challenges; teachers therefore must prepare these learners to possess sophisticated, diversified, and complementary competencies that will enable them to navigate through these challenges.
● Global trend : TPD is the best practice for professional growth


The institutionalization of the practice and involvement of teachers in TPD is a regulatory role of TSC. The powers
are derived from:
1. Constitution of Kenya -Article 237 (2) (a), (e) , 237 (3) a, b
(The Constitution of Kenya (2010) established the Teachers Service Commission as a constitutional Commission through Article 237 (1) with an exclusive mandate on teacher management.)  
2. TSC Act 2012 Section 35 (1), 35(2) (a) and (b) of the Act
(TSC Act , 2012 sections 11(e) : mandates TSC  to facilitate professional development for teachers therefore TPD is mandatory to all TSC registered teachers in Kenya, including; TSC Instututions’ trainers, CSOs, unemployed trs, Private and International schools’, BoM and Public school teachers.)
3. Code of Regulation for Teachers Regulations 41 (3) a & b.
 ● The mandate is also amplified in Section 35(2) (a) and (b) of the Act, and Regulations 48 &49 of teachers.

Why the Shift?

Changing environment of teaching – 21st century skills demands, – ICT and – Knowledge based society
Teaching as a profession – Align teaching with any other modern professions, – Knowledge base of teaching profession – teachers must assume a greater responsibility for their own TPD
Change from teaching( Push PD) to Learning ( Pull PD) – In 20th Century and in some context until recently,
TPD was based on a training paradigm-deficit; mastery model and one-shot program

What is in the Shift

Teaching Standards (KePTS)
Use of TPD Modules : Two prescribed modules responding to competency levels of teachers and instructional leaders and one introductory module. Each of the two modules have 6 levels each and each level has 5 chapters.  Each chapter takes one year.
Accreditation of TPD service Providers: All
organizations that were interested in offering TPD to teachers
were registered and only 4 were accredited by TSC for meeting the required levels. Including; KEMI; MKU; KU and Riara University.

Specific Outcomes of TPD

These include: –
● Inculcating a culture of life-long learning of teachers and instructional leaders.
● Fostering personal and professional growth of teachers and instructional leaders.
● Building capacity of teachers and instructional leaders as action researchers in their practice.
● Developing capacity of teachers and instructional leaders as reflective practitioners


● TPD training content is based on the Seven (7) Kenya Professional Teaching Standards (KePTS). 
● The standards define the work of Kenyan teachers in the context of the 21st century learning, by setting high quality and effective teaching expectations that are meant to improve overall learners’ achievement. 
● KePTS are meant to provide a consistent and supportive framework for measuring effectiveness of Teachers and Instructional leaders against specific competency indicators.

The seven (7) standards guiding the provision of Professional Development for Teachers. 

Standard 1:  Teacher Promotes Professionalism throughout his/her Career
Standard No. 2: Teacher has Pedagogical Content Knowledge and   understanding of competency- based Curriculum and how to implement it.
 Standard 3: Teacher has knowledge on assessment and reporting
Standard 4:  Teacher Knows how to Create and Support Inclusive Education Practices
Standard 5: Teacher Knows and Promotes Comprehensive School Health and Safety
Standard 6: The Teacher has Knowledge of Financial Literacy Skills
Standard 7: The Teacher Knows and Promotes Instructional Leadership and Administration

How TPD Will Be Delivered

Contracted TPD service providers will deliver TPD through
1. Face to Face workshops at Sub County level. 
The workshop will take 5 days during one school holiday in a year
2. Online webinar: During the other two school holidays in a year, professional learning will be through an online platform  synchronous and asynchronous) for 5 days Prescribed Modules
-There shall be three modules, each having 6 levels and each level having 5 chapters addressing the 7 KePTS standards.
-Teachers will first enroll for Introductory Module which will last for 1 year i.e Dec 2021 to Dec 2022.
-The Introductory Module will be done through online webinars and other online platforms (There will be no face-to-face sessions).

Target Groups for Introductory Module

● All teachers and instructional leaders registered by TSC
● For one to progress to Teachers Module, you need to be a TSC registered teacher possessing a certificate in TPD Introductory Module
● For one to progress to Instructional leaders’ Module, you need to be a TSC registered teacher and serving as a head teacher or principal possessing a certificate in TPD Introductory Module


● There are no examinations in TPD
TPD activities will be evaluated based on an authentic assessment which will include:
  1. Reflective journal
  2. Participant-led final syntheses such as self-assessment and peer assessment
  3.  Individual Professional Portfolio Development and Presentation
● TPD will be based on competence assessments in accordance with the TPD framework. 
● Assessment will mainly be in form of group activities, action research, journals, and portfolios.
●  TPD will account for 60% while TPAD will account for 40% of teacher appraisal by TSC.

Incentives for Teachers undertaking TPD

  • Earning of TPD points: At the end of each year, teachers will earn 60 TPD points based on the prescribed modules
  • Teachers will also earn 40 TPD points based on professional learning captured under TPAD e.g  INSETS by CEMASTEA and others
  • Accumulated TPD points will be used to Renew Teaching Certificate of successful participants every 5 Years will be used to renew the Teaching License.

Certification and Licensing

  • Upon successful completion of the introductory module, a participant shall be issued a transcript and a certificate
  • This will be required for the renewal of the Teaching License.
  • NB. In line with the legal framework for TPD, and upon commencement of the TPD Programme, all TSC registered teachers will be required to acquire a Teaching License renewable every 5 years upon completion of a module

This is paragraph 2 for posts without the target word.

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