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Day 3; Learner Centered Strategies

•A Learner-centered approach is the acknowledgement of the diversity among learners.
•Teachers need to understand that each learner has a unique way of accessing, processing and applying information.
•It involves many varied intentionally designed instructional experiences; provides multiple ways of learners to access, process, interpret and apply information.

 Learner- Centered Activities

•A “learner-centred” activity focuses on the learner’s needs, experiences, background, perspectives, preferences, and interests as they relate to learning.

•A learner-centred activity helps the learners make the connections between what they already know and new information.

• It provides the learner with opportunities to set goals, provide input into the learning process, and collaborate.

•It provides opportunities to share interests, perspectives, and opinions in a safe, supportive environment.

Learner centered approaches include:

  1. Cooperative learning:

This is a teaching strategy that involves learners working in small groups to complete a task or project. The tasks are structured so that each member contributes to the completion of the task.

  1. Group Discussion:

This is a teaching strategy that enables learners to articulate their views and respond to opinions from their own. The group may be structured as either a large or small group.

  1. Independent study:

This is a teaching strategy that promotes an individualized learning experience allowing the learner to select a topic of focus, define the problem, gather and analyze the information, apply skills and create a product to show and tell

  1. Portfolio development:

This is a teaching strategy where learners are supported to gather, organize and illustrate examples of their learning experiences and accomplishments. It is a process of creating, collecting, reflecting on and selecting work samples that engage learners continuously.

  • Journaling:

This is a teaching strategy that provides learners with an opportunity to record their thoughts, feelings and reflection on a variety of learning experiences. The journal enables learners to explore ideas and clarify their thinking. It promotes reflection and higher-level thinking.

  •  Venn diagram:

This is a graphic organizer that is used to compare and construct information about two or more objects, concepts or ideas. It allows learners to organize information and see a relationship.

  • Community service-learning:

This is a teaching strategy in which a teacher designs a project where the learner will participate in service within a community that has a learning component and reflection.

  • Inquiry-based learning:

This is a teaching strategy that provides learners with an opportunity to examine issues systematically that involves identifying the issues, planning action, evaluating the action and reporting the experiences for further action.

  1. Project-based learning

This is a teaching strategy in which learners are guided to identify a project which is undertaken systematically and reported.


•Telling the learners what they need to know through lecturing is not learner-centred. Lectures should be short, and most often, a preface to an activity that is meaningful.

•Having the learner simply read a chapter or a paper is not learner-centred activity unless we focus their reading by asking questions that help create links between the theory and the learner’s jobs or interests or experiences.

Integration of technology in teaching and learning

• This is the acknowledgement of the role of integration of technology in teaching and learning in the context of the 21st century.
• It is expected that teachers are digital literates who are capable of accessing, retrieving and designing lessons that integrate ICT in teaching and learning. • It is expected that teachers have the knowledge, skills and attitudes in the use of basic computer applications and online platforms.
• The successful integration of ICT into the learning environment will depend on the ability of teachers to structure learning in new ways, to merge technology appropriately with pedagogy, develop socially active classrooms, and encourage co-operative interaction and collaborative learning and group work.
• For many, this requires a different set of skills from those they currently possess.
• While, ICT integration aims to improve and increase the quality, accessibility and cost-efficiency of the delivery of instruction to learners, it also refers to benefits from networking the learning communities to face the challenges of current globalization.
• The use of technology in education contributes a lot in the pedagogical aspects in which the application of ICT will lead to effective learning with the help and supports from ICT elements and components.

TPACK-ICT Implementation


• Any effective implementation of technology in the classroom requires acknowledgement of the dynamic, transactional relationship among content, pedagogy, and the incoming technology – all within the unique contexts of different schools, classrooms, and cultures.

• A teacher can adapt the TPACK framework to different circumstances.

What is ICT integration in learning

ICT Integration in Learning is the process where teachers use technology as tool to help them and their Learners achieve curricula and instructional goals. 

Many educators fall into the trap of thinking that technology drives the curriculum, whereas in fact, it should be the other way round
 The curriculum should drive technology (Shelly et al, 2012).The original Bloom’s

Taxonomy  (Bloom, 1956) was revised to inform teacher educators on how to use technology and digital tools to enrich learners’ experiences and outcome (Sneed, 2016). 

Blooms Digital Taxonomy

 The original Bloom’s Taxonomy  (Bloom, 1956) was revised to inform teacher educators on how to use technology and digital tools to enrich learners’ experiences and outcome (Sneed, 2016). 
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

Mishra and Koehler (2006) posited that TPACK model focus on how technology is used in teaching. Technological knowledge is considered an important ingredient for enriching pedagogical content knowledge.


Competency-based Curriculum is fertile ground for ICT Integration

  • ICT Integration improves the quality of teaching and learning
  • Computer-based and mobile-based technologies are available of integration in learning
  • It is important for teachers to acquire ICT Competencies
  • ICT Integration happens with-in and with-out classroom practice
  • ICT Integration beings from basic (use of productivity tools)  to  advance levels (creating learning resources, using LMS etc.)
  • Teacher educators need to acquire knowledge and skills to operate systems and computer hardware, use standard sets of software tools

Concept of Inclusive Education and its Characteristics

  • Inclusive education is about looking at the ways our schools, classrooms, programs and lessons are designed so that all children can participate and learn. Inclusion is also about finding different ways of teaching so that classrooms actively involve all children.
  •  It also means finding ways to develop friendships, relationships and mutual respect between all children, and between children and teachers in the school. 
  • Inclusion is a philosophy based on the belief that all learners are respected for their unique capabilities and should be an integral part of learning within the regular classroom.  
  • Inclusion ensures equitable access to learning for those learners identified with special needs and requires necessary resources, to support their learning with other learners.  
  • Placement of learners to other educational settings must be justified on basis of individual learning needs. 
  • Inclusive education needs to be a collaborative effort among parents/ guardians, teachers, community and government. Inclusive education is carried out in a common learning environment; that is, an educational setting where students from different backgrounds and with different abilities learn together in an inclusive environment.

Differences Between Equity and equality

Equality means each individual or group of people is given the same resources or opportunities. Equity recognizes that each person has different circumstances and allocates the exact resources and opportunities needed to reach an equal outcome.

“The route to achieving equity will not be accomplished through treating everyone equally. It will be achieved by treating everyone justly according to their circumstances.” —Paula Dressel, Race Matters Institute

What does equality mean?

 The word equality is defined as “the state or quality of being equal; correspondence in quantity, degree, value, rank, or ability.” 3 Equality is usually simple to understand: three buckets that all contain five apples are in a state of equality. They all have exactly the same amount of the exact same items. Under the law, Americans have equality in the sense that nobody can be legally denied their rights based on any personal quality. The word equity is defined as “the quality of being fair or impartial; fairness; impartiality” or “something that is fair and just.”

 Equity is more complicated than equality. The complication with equity is that people often disagree on what is “just” or “fair.” These are subjective concepts and, as a result, laws and policies that attempt to achieve equity are often challenged in court or are controversial. The use of the word equity has increased due to concerns about social justice and a desire for fairness for historically oppressed groups. In the law, minority groups may have equal rights but are still treated unfairly. Historically oppressed groups such as LGBTQ+ people, Black people, and Indigenous peoples have not only fought for equality, but continue to fight for equity in society.

Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligence

Howard Gardner of Harvard University first came up with the theory of multiple intelligences in 1983. Gardner argues that there are eight types of intelligence, far more than the standard I.Q. test can account for.

He goes on to say that these multiple intelligences “challenge an educational system that assumes that everyone can learn the same materials in the same way and that a uniform, universal measure suffices to test student learning.”

Gardner argues that schools and teachers should teach in a way that supports all types of intelligence, not just the traditional ones such as linguistic and logical intelligence.

Gardner argues that schools and teachers should teach in a way that supports all types of intelligence, not just the traditional ones such as linguistic and logical intelligence.

The Eight Bits of Intelligence

1. Linguistic Intelligence (“word smart”)

2. Logical-Mathematical Intelligence (“number/reasoning smart”)

3. Visual-Spatial Intelligence (“picture smart”)

4. Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence (“body smart”)

5. Musical Intelligence (“music smart”)

6. Interpersonal Intelligence (“people smart”)

7. Intrapersonal Intelligence (“self smart”)

8. Naturalist Intelligence (“nature smart”)

TPD Assessment Portfolio and Rubrics

Student Learning Strategies-Teacher Professional Development

INDUCTION-TPD Introductory

Importance of ICT In Education-Teacher Professional Development

WHAT IS INCLUSIVE EDUCATION?-Teacher Professional Development

Professionalism -Teacher Proffessional Development (TPD)

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