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Quality Assurance of Assessment Processes in Junior Secondary


       Overview of Staffing in JSS

The JSS leadership SHALL manage all human resources in accordance with all applicable laws including the Basic Education Act (2013), TSC Act (2012), Employment Act (2007), Occupational Safety and Health Act (2007), NHIF Act (2022), NSSF Act (2013) and the Work Injury Benefits Act(WIBA) 2007.

      Junior Secondary Teaching Staff

  • All persons offering instruction, and other learning-related services, in the JSSs MUST meet the requirements provided by the TSC Act (2012) and any other relevant law.
  • In respect to 7.2 (i), ALL JSS teachers MUST be registered as outlined under Part 23 (1) of the TSC Act (2012) and Article 237 of the Kenya Constitution 2010.
  • The TSC SHALL deploy, recruit and post teachers to JSS, who will perform duties as per the Basic Education Act (2013) Part IV, Section 40 and in accordance to TSC Act (2012). In so doing, the TSC SHALL be guided by the areas of specialisation, Curriculum Based Establishment (CBE) and the existing staffing norms.

(iv). Deployment of the heads of Special JSSs and Special units SHALL be guided by the category of disability of learners and the area of specialisation and prevailing Career Progression Guidelines.

       Staffing Norms for Junior Secondary School

Staffing norms refer to the TSC standards to determine the number of teachers and administrators required in a public learning institution. The norms are reviewed from time to time to address emerging concerns.  In this regard:

  • The JSS staffing norm SHALL be based on the curriculum offered in Grades 7–9, class size and the scope of administrative duties assigned (see annexes 4A and B).
  • Table 9: Illustrates the distribution of lessons for public JSSs and this forms the basis for determining teacher deployment, per subject and school, taking into cognizance other responsibilities such as administrative duties.
Table 9: Compulsory and Optional Subjects in JSS
S/NCompulsory SubjectsLessons Per WeekOptional Subjects (any two)Weekly Lesson Allocation
 English5Foreign Languages (Arabic, French, German, Mandarin)3
 Kiswahili/KSL (for learners who are deaf)4Indigenous Languages3
 Mathematics5Home Science3
 Integrated Science4Computer Science3
 Health Education2Visual Arts3
 Pre-Technical studies4Performing Arts3
 Social Studies (Citizenship, Geography, History)3Sign Language3
 Religious Education (CRE/IRE/ HRE/      3  
 Business Studies      3  
 Agriculture      3  
 Life Skills Education      1  
 Physical Education and Sports      2  
 TOTAL39 + 6= 45  


  • The total number of teachers required in JSS should be based on the (CBE).
  • A JSS teacher shall be allocated 27 lessons per week. This WILL include lessons from the two (2) or three (3) optional subject areas of specialization.
  • The CBE is given by the formula:

         CBE   =  Total Number of lessons per subject per week  – Shortfall arising from lower teaching of administrators


  • The teaching load for the teachers translates to 18 teaching hours per week. This is in addition to support tasks such as preparation of Schemes of Work, Lesson Plan teaching  and learning aids, Co-Curricular time, management administrative time and assessments.
  • The teachers in JSS should teach at least two subjects.
  • The teaching load of school administrators; specifically, the School head, deputy School head and Senior Master should be lower than that of the other teachers. The variance WILL be due to administrative time allowance for administrators.
  • Appointment and deployment of school administrators SHALL take cognizance of the existing TSC policy.

Teacher In-Service Training Model in Junior School

Teacher Professional Development is critical to effective implementation of the JSS curriculum. The proposed teacher in-service training model is illustrated in Figure 4.

Fig 4: In-Service Teacher Training Model Flow Chart

The design builds onto best practice by leveraging existing training structures such as the Strengthening Mathematics, Science Education (SMASE) County Teacher Capacity Development Committees (CTCDC) to support the in- service training. The CTCD comprises education and TSC officers, QA&S officers; teacher trainers, teacher headship leadership and union representatives). The model also takes cognizance of the need for continuous support of teacher in- service programmes at the various implementation levels by officers from MoE and its agencies. Over time, this model has proven to be more robust, effective and efficient.

In this regard, the MoE and TSC SHALL institutionalise the following teacher in-service model through a blended approach; with both face to face and virtual sessions.

  • KICD and KNEC in collaboration with MoE, TSC, KEMI, CEMASTEA and KISE SHALL develop modular curriculum and training mannual, with subject-based content and train Master Trainers (MTs) on CBC.
  • CEMASTEA in collaboration with MoE, TSC, KICD, KNEC, KEMI and KISE SHALL develop a modular curriculum and training manual, with subject-based content and conduct teacher inservice training on pedagogical content knowledge.
  • KEMI SHALL collaborate with MoE, TSC, KICD, KNEC, CEMASTEA and KISE to develop a modular curriculum and training manual with theme based content and conduct in-service training on school leadership.
  • KICD, in collaboration with MoE, TSC, CEMASTEA, KNEC, KISE, KEMI and other relevant SAGAs SHALL develop a schedule for training of MTs.
  • The training SHALL be conducted in three tier SMART cascade model: at the National level for MTs, at the Regional level for Trainer of Trainers (ToTs); and, at County and Sub- County levels for the teachers.
  • In servicing of teachers for both the regular and SNE JSSs SHALL be conducted by a multi-agency team of qualified ToTs drawn from MoE, TSC, KICD, KNEC, CEMASTEA, KEMI, KISE, DQAS, teacher educators, University lecturers and other relevant institutions, during the school holidays..
  • Suitable training venues (including Teachers’ and Technical Training Colleges, Universities, and SMASE INSET Centres) SHALL be utilized.
  • MoE SHALL oversee the in-service training programme to ensure conformance with the required quality standards.
  • The MTs SHALL monitor and coordinate the training centers.
  • The training SHALL be evaluated at three levels: Pre-evaluation, Post evaluation and Independent evaluation.
  • The CTCDC and JSS leadership SHALL continually support peer capacity development of teachers through lesson study and virtual peer support.
  • Teachers SHALL establish a school- level Community of Practice.
  • The JSS leadership and CTCDC SHALL provide the MoE, TSC and relevant SAGAs with regular feedback on the teachers’ practice.
  • MoE, TSC, KICD, KNEC, CEMASTEA, KEMI and KISE SHALL use the feedback provided to review the training curriculum from time to time.

Non-Teaching Staff in Junior Secondary

  • The JSS BoMs SHALL be responsible for employment, promotion renumeration and discipline of all non-teaching staff; in accordance with the Basic Education Act (2013) and other existing labour laws.
  • This applies to relevant auxiliary staff for Special JSS and Units.

In so doing, the JSS leadership SHALL rationalise the number of non-teaching staff, based on enrolment and the number of streams in the school

Assessment Approaches, Methods and Tools Applied at Junior Secondary School and Pre-Vocational Level

JSS Professional Documents

This is paragraph 2 for posts without the target word.

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