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Assessment refers to the systematic process of documenting and using empirical data on the knowledge, skill, attitudes, and beliefs to refine programs and improve student learning

• Assessment is therefore a practical form of measuring the competence of the learner by evaluating three major attributes associated with learning outcomes: Knowledge, skills and attitude.

• To ensure acquisition of the 21st century skills in our learners there is need to change the way we currently assess

• Assessment data can be obtained from directly examining student work to assess the achievement of learning outcomes or can be based on data from which one can make inferences about learning.


•Assessment as learning occurs when the learner undertakes a project in which he/she is assisted by the teacher to set individual goals, monitor own progress, do self-assessment and reflect on their own learning, and make further improvements in this learning process.

•Assessment for learning is when the teacher uses an exploratory tool to monitor the progress of an individual learner in meeting a representative number of outcomes in a subject or a learning area.  It involves a teacher gathering data during the learning process that provides feedback to the learner and the teacher to improve learning.

•Assessment of learning is a process in which a teacher summarizes and communicates what a learner knows and can do, with respect to curriculum learning outcome, expectations at a specified time, usually at the end of the unit or term.  The feedback in this assessment process has less impact on learners learning.

Formative AssessmentSummative Assessment
Assessment for Learning –Designed and administered during learning process Assessment as Learning –Learners evaluate their work against learning outcomes such as classroom assessment and school based assessmentAssessment of Learning –Undertaken at th end of a learning period. For example End of Unit, End of Month, End of Term or National Assessment

Formative Assessment Tools/ Strategies

• Teachers are supposed to conduct quality assessment in a manner that is consistent with the kind of performance required of the learner in what they are being evaluated.

• A teacher uses a range of assessment tools that provides a clear picture of achievement progress and growth in a learning area or subject.

• These include:
– Self- assessment
– Peer assessment
– Observation schedules
– Checklists

Formative Assessment Tools/ Strategies

Teachers are supposed to conduct quality assessment in a manner that is consistent with the kind of performance required of the learner in what they are being evaluated.

Assessment tools/strategies

A teacher uses a range of assessment tools that provides a clear picture of achievement progress and growth in a learning area or subject

  1. Self- assessment
  2. Peer  assessment
  3. Observation schedules
  4. Checklists
  5. Rating Scales
  6. Rubrics
  7. Questionnaire
  8. Project
  9. Journals
  10. Portfolio
  11. Oral or Aural Questions
  12. Written Tests

Self assessment

 Assessment refers to the act of determining or estimating the value of something and making appropriate judgments on issues. 
• It is used interchangeably with words liken evaluation, examination etc.
• Similarly, self-assessment is the ability to examine yourself to find out how much progress you have made. 
• It is a skill that helps individuals monitor their own work or abilities, find out what their weaknesses and strengths are, and self-diagnose relevant solutions.
• The purpose of self-assessment is to help the individual know the extent of his abilities and to improve upon them without the need of a performance appraiser. 
• It involves the use of questions such as;
i. what are my strengths? 
ii. what are the obstacles?
iii. How do I overcome

Importance of self-assessment
• Self-assessment is as important to students as they are to professionals.
• Some general benefits of self-assessment are:
– It makes the learner sure and confident about their capabilities. It
eliminates or reduces learning related fear and uncertainty.
– It enables learners to assess themself, make corrections quickly and
improve on their abilities. In other words, it enhances capacity building.
– It helps learners in selecting occupations or educational programs
that are best suited for them. 
– It provides direction for learning. Once you know what your strengths
and weaknesses are, you can choose the right tutor or training that best fits your needs.
– It helps the individual to identify their abilities and highlight their special qualities.  

Asking questions

An important aspect of self-assessment is the ability to ask questions.

• Learners should develop the ability to ask specific and relevant questions.

• Questions about what, how, and why they have a problem at doing something or how and why you succeeded in something.

Writing down clear-cut objectives.

• Honest and objective assessment of oneself is the toughest aspect of the entire process.

• Learners should write down the targets for the most important aspects or goals and assess their performance in comparison to each of them.

• They should compare the actual performance or results to the target they set at the beginning of the term/ year.

Developing a personal grading system

Learners need to create a grading system for themselves

• They may develop an evaluation sheet for competencies such as:

– Communication 30%,

– Self confidence20%,

– Friendliness 30%,

– enthusiasm 10%,

– self-confidence 10%.

• In the end, they need to set an objective /target that they need towards.


• Peer assessment or peer review provides a structured learning process for students to critique and provide feedback to each other on their work.

• It helps students develop lifelong skills in assessing and providing feedback to others, and also equips them with skills to self-assess and improve their own work.

Why Use Peer Assessment?  

Peer assessment can:

i. Empower students to take responsibility for and manage their own learning.

ii. Enable students to learn to assess and give others constructive feedback to develop lifelong assessment skills.

iii. Enhance students’ learning through knowledge diffusion and exchange of ideas.

iv. Motivate students to engage with course material more deeply.

Considerations for Using Peer Assessment

• Let learners know the rationale for doing peer review. Explain the expectations and benefits of engaging in a peer review process.
• Consider having learners evaluate anonymous assignments for more objective feedback.
• Be prepared to give feedback on learners’ feedback to each other.
• Display some examples of feedback of varying quality and discuss which kind of feedback is useful and why.
• Give clear directions and time limits for in-class peer review sessions and set defined deadlines for out-of-class peer review assignments.
• Listen to group feedback discussions and provide guidance and input when necessary.
• Learner familiarity and ownership of criteria tend to enhance peer assessment validity, so involve students in a discussion of the criteria used.
• Consider involving students in developing an assessment rubric.

Getting Started with Peer Assessment

• Identify assignments or activities for which students might benefit from peer feedback.
• Consider breaking a larger assignment into smaller pieces and incorporating peer assessment opportunities at each stage. For example, assignment outline, first draft, second draft, etc.
• Design guidelines or rubrics with clearly defined tasks for the reviewer.
• Introduce rubrics through learning exercises to ensure students have the ability to apply the rubric effectively.
• Determine whether peer review activities will be conducted as in-class or out-of-class assignments.
• Help students learn to carry out peer assessment by modeling appropriate, constructive criticism and descriptive feedback through your own comments on student work and well-constructed rubrics.
• Incorporate small feedback groups where written comments on assignments can be explained

What is Reflective journal?

• Reflective journal is a tool which assesses the understanding processes, writing abilities, connection to concepts and personal knowledge.

• Reflective journal contains the contents of reflection by a practitioner.

Advantages of reflective practice

• Reflective practice provides a means for teachers to improve their practice to effectively meet the learning needs of their learners.

• The advantages of reflective practice to teachers as:

i. It helps teachers to take informed actions that can be justified and explained to others and that can be used to guide further action;

ii. It allows teachers to adjust and respond to issues;

iii. It helps teachers to become aware of their underlying beliefs and assumptions about learning and teaching;

iv. It helps teachers promote a positive learning environment;

v. It allows teachers to consciously develop a repertoire of relevant and context specific strategies and techniques, and;

vi. It helps teachers locate their teaching in the broader institutional, social and political context and to appreciate that many factors influence student learning. KE

Attributes of reflective practitioner

  • Reflects on and learn from experience
    • Engages in ongoing inquiry
    • Solicits feedback
    • Remains open to alternative perspectives
    • Assumes responsibility for their own learning
    • Takes action to align with new knowledge and understandings
    • Observes themselves in the process of thinking
    • Committed to continuous improvement in practice
    • Strives to align behaviour with values and beliefs
    • Seeks to discover what is true.

The Modes of Reflection

Reflective practice is undertaken not just to revisit the past but to guide future action. Reflective practitioners use all Four of the essential modes of reflection:

i. Reflection-in-action is taking note of thinking and actions as they are occurring and making immediate adjustments as events unfold. Re-evaluation occurs on the spot.

ii. Reflection-on-action is looking back on and learning from experience or action in order to affect future action. Reflecting after an event is probably the most frequently used form of reflection.

iii. Reflection-for-action involves analyzing practices with the purpose of taking action to change . It includes reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action. This type of reflection is proactive in nature. Often called ‘closing the gap’ reflection, it focuses on closing the gap between what is and what might be.

iv. Reflection-within is inquiring about personal purposes, intentions and feelings. Teachers might question what is working well, what’s keeping them from taking action, what’s keeping their perspective limited, or why they reacted in a particular way. This is very similar to self-reflection

Rating scales

•The teacher uses them to record observations of the learners’ activities and competencies.

•The learners can also use them as self-assessment tools.

•It usually has more points that illustrate how frequently, consistently, or independently a learner demonstrates a learning outcome.

Rating scales state the criteria and provide three or four response selections to describe the quality or frequency of the learner’s work.
 They use descriptive words such as ‘always’,  ‘ usually’ , ‘sometimes’, and ‘never’ to assist learners to pinpoint specific strengths and needs.
This is a simple example of a rating scale:
Look at the following skills or behaviour demonstrated by an individual learner over time and rate him/her appropriately:


•A checklist is a list of attributes of an individual’s behaviour that requires the teacher to carefully observe and tick whatever behavior is portrayed at the end of the lesson the teacher and the learner make a summary and draw a conclusion.

•Checklists are used for assessing content -rich items.

•For example, a checklist on a learner’s assignment highlights outcomes a learner has successfully completed.

•They outline the criteria for specific behaviors related to the skill or skill area.

It is usually a two-point assessment tool that demonstrates that a learner has achieved the learning outcomes, either yes or not yet

They offer a Yes/No, True/False format in relation to a learner demonstrating a specific criterion. 
Contain a list of characteristics of a learner’s behaviour.
Checklists require the teacher’s careful observation of the competencies portrayed.
Teacher marks/ticks against the competencies portrayed. 
The observed competency can be recorded, as observed before or at the time of ticking. 
The learners can also develop their own checklists for self-assessment.

This is paragraph 2 for posts without the target word.

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