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 SubjectNo. of lessons (per week) Each lesson has 40 mins
1.Kiswahili4 lessons
2.English5 lessons
3Indigenous Languages3 lessons

The Constitution  accords English the status of one of the official languages. Language in Education Policy (1976) –English is the language of instruction across all levels .Mastery enhances access to opportunities.

Exposure to knowledge, use, and literary appreciation.

Build on the competencies acquired at the lower levels.


  • Proficiency in the English language for further learning and training, and their day to day interactions.
  • Varied experiences in the four language skills and Grammar in Use to develop linguistic and communicative competence.
  •  Interact with print and non-print language and literary materials both in and outside the classroom.


By the end of Junior Secondary level, the learner should be able to:

  • listen and respond appropriately to relevant information in a variety of contexts
  • read a wide variety of texts fluently, accurately, and interpretively for lifelong learning
  • Foundation for the learners’ efficient and effective use of the language, as a communication tool and the medium of instruction at senior secondary school.
  • A stepping stone for further study of English, Literature in English, and other pathways.
  • develop   critical thinking skills for life
  • read and analyse literary works and relate them to real life experiences
  • develop a lifelong interest in reading on a wide range of subjects
  • use grammatical forms to communicate appropriately in different settings
  • write texts legibly, creatively, and cohesively to empower them for life
  • apply digital literacy skills to enhance proficiency in English
  • appreciate the role of English as a medium for creativity and talent development


  • The teacher is expected to utilise this time to ensure that learners go through all the sub strands so as to achieve both the general and the specific learning outcomes.
  •  Guidance has also been given in the design on the number of lessons for each of the sub strands. :


  • Group work which encourages collaborative learning.
  • Pair work
  • Group tasks with reports at plenary
  • Peer teaching
  • peer assessment 
  • Prior and adequate preparation of resources and professional documents
  • Using a variety of transformative learner centred pedagogies.


  • The National goals of Education indicate the nation’s aspirations in Education.
  • Statements that give direction on Education matters and show what the country hopes to achieve through its education system and programmes.
  • Every teacher and stakeholder in education ought to understand that  their dealings in education and with the learners contribute to the national agenda
  • Whatever steps, however small, that are taken to contribute to shaping learner are a key contribution to building the nation.
  • The grade seven English curriculum design resonates heavily with the National Goals of Education.
  •  There is an obvious link between the National Goals of Education, the level learning outcomes, the general learning outcomes and the specific learning out comes.


  • The design is organised into strands and sub strands and incorporates both the content knowledge (knowledge of representation of the subject matter) and pedagogical knowledge (teaching strategies) in an integrated manner
  • Aspects of preparation of professional documents and assessment have also been addressed within the sub strands. The design aims at equipping the teacher to help a learner gain skills so as to use the English language effectively in and out of school.


Four strands

  1. Listening and Speaking
  2. Reading
  3. Writing
  4. Grammar in Use

SS-Listening and Speaking

  • Conversational Skills: Polite Language
  • Oral Presentations: Oral Narratives
  • Listening for Information and the main idea
  • Listening comprehension; Selective listening
  • Pronunciation: Sounds and   Word Stress
  • Conversation Skills:
  • Listening Comprehension: Listening for Details
  •  Pronunciation: Consonant and Vowel Sounds 



  • Extensive Reading:Independent Reading
  • Intensive Reading: Trickster Narratives
  • Intensive Reading: Simple Poems
  • Intensive Reading: Class Reader
  • Intensive reading: poetry
  • Reading: Fluency
  • Intensive Reading: Visuals
  • Intensive Reading: Characters in class readers

SS-Grammar in use


  • Word classes; nouns
  • Word classes: Verbs and tense
  • Word classes: Verbs and Tenses
  • Synonyms and Antonyms
  • Word classes: Adjectives
  • Word Classes: Adverbs
  • Word Classes: Personal and possessive pronouns
  • Simple Prepositions
  • Word Classes: Conjunctions and, but, or



  • Hand writing: Legibility and Neatness
  • Mechanics of Writing: Punctuation Marks
  • Paragraphing. Using examples and incidents
  • Friendly letters
  • Mechanics of Writing: Commonly Misspelt Words
  • Composition Writing:  Writing Process
  • Narrative compositions
  • Functional Writing: Packing and Shopping lists


Thematic approach that emphasizes CBC aspects – language is best learnt in context

  • There are 15 Thematic Areas such as Human Rights, Scientific                                                           Innovations, Consumer Roles and Responsibilities among others

Reading and integration-Class readers as opposed to set texts (Flexibility)

Enjoyable and experiential interaction as opposed to fixated literary analysis

  • Specific listening and speaking concepts such as responsive listening and selective listening among others
  • Reading aspects include, comprehension strategies, fluency and study skills
  • Emphasis on the writing process with aspects such as functional writing, creative writing, descriptive writing and paragraphing
  • Organising learning in pair work, group work or whole class as opposed to individual performance of tasks
  • Flexibility eg use of take away and outdoor activities

Formative assessment intertwined within the learning process through learning experiences such as mind maps and various aural and oral activities

  • simple  improvised resources made from cost friendly locally available materials such as flash cards


The CBC curriculum has introduced Indigenous Language as a learning area in a bid to actualise the National Language Policy in education.

At Grades 1-3 this is coverered as the Literacy activities. From grade 4 including Senior School, Indigenous Language is an optional subject.

Currently working with 18 out of the 85 identified Kenyan languages/dailects on the basis of availability of established writing systems. The goal is to ensure that all languages are given a chance.

Essence Statement

Learners in Junior Secondary School will be exposed to a wide range of subjects including Indigenous Languages. This is because a people’s culture is best passed on through their language. 

The Constitution in Chapter 2, Article 7 (3) commits the Government to promote and protect the diversity of languages of the people of Kenya as well as promote the development and use of the indigenous languages. 

Piaget – learners at this age develop the ability to think about abstract concepts.

  • The course will focus on developing further the language skills and competencies acquired in lower levels of education.
  •  The potential for the learner to become proficient in the language of their choice to ensure effective communication and educational progress will be enhanced.
  • Learners will be provided with varied learning experiences such as   visits to vernacular radio and television stations to help them gain confidence and expose them to possible future careers through rigorous career guidance programmes.
  • A reasonable proficiency in Mother Language at this level will be a prerequisite for a course in Indigenous Languages at Senior Secondary.

Subject/General Learning Outcomes

By end of junior secondary school, the learner should be able to

  1. Respond appropriately to a variety of communication in the indigenous language
  2. Express themselves confidently and appropriately in a variety of social contexts.
  3. Demonstrate knowledge of and apply indigenous knowledge, culture and values in varied situations.
  4. Comprehend information in different contexts in the indigenous language.
  5. Read fluently with comprehension and write legibly in different formats to express a variety of ideas and opinions.
  6. Enjoy communicating using a variety of cultural language strategies.


The inter-relationship between the National Goals of Education and the learning outcomes is exemplified below:


Grade 7: Indigenous Languages (IL)

National Goal of Education No. 3

  • Promote individual development and self fulfilment.
  • The Level Learning Outcomes for Middle School Education that would help achieve the National Goal of Education above is

   “Communicate effectively verbally and non verbally in

     diverse contexts”

  •  The General Learning Outcomes for Indigenous Language

related to this level learning outcome is:

   “Enjoy communicating using a variety of cultural language


Strands and sub strands

  • The IL curriculum is takes a thematic approach – Content to be covered is enshrined in the context of various themes.
  • These include unity, citizenship, safety and security, environmental conservation, culture, indigenous trade, careers, health and nutrition, indigenous knowledge and leisure.

Strands and sub strands

  • Listening  and speaking – listening for information, listening for comprehension, attentive listening, listening for pleasure, conversational skills, storytelling, presentation skills, narration skills
  • Language structure ® Categorizing word classes and distinguishing specific use and application, types of sentences among others
  • Writing ®social writing, writing to give information, imaginative writing, narrative compositions, different types of paragraphs, functional writing, imaginative writing among others
  • Reading -reading for comprehension, extensive reading, library skills, reading for information, intensive reading and reading for pleasure


Learning of languages is supported by a number of theories, for example,

  • Gardner’s multiple intelligence theory argues that we are all able to know the world through language. The theory puts a strong emphasis on learner centred classrooms, self-directed learning and delivery of instruction via multiple mediums.
  • Vygotsky’s social-cultural development theory posits that learners negotiate meanings with people in the environment. They achieve goals through interacting with teachers, peers and learning materials.
  • John Hattie’s visible learning theory that affirms that learners need to be able to think about what they are learning, solve problems, work in teams, communicate through discussions, take initiatives and bring diverse perspectives to their learning.

Pedagogy for IL embraces Transformative Methodologies that include but are not limited to:

  • Communicative approach emphasizes on interaction as both the means and goal of learning. It relies on the principle of fluency, activities of real life, use of songs and games, feedback, and correction. e.g  interactions in riddles or ‘mchongoano’ challenges (all these use cultural language figuratively). Learners will role play, pretend to talk about events, simulate haggling the prices of stuff – all real-world situations where there’s a need to communicate meaningfully.
  • Project-based approach – where learners undertake self-drivenprojects individually or collaboratively. They are guided to pursue an idea or investigate a question or solve a challenge. For example, to find proof that use of indigenous languages enhances social cohesion, learners will have to delve into community activities, so they find proof for their findings.


  • Somo hili litampa mwanafunzi wa daraja ya awali ya shule ya upili umilisi katika shughuli za kila siku.Umilisi huu utajengea haiba na uwezo wake wa kuwasiliana na kuhusiana katika jamii,kitaifa na kimataifa.Aidha litamwendeleza kielimu na kumwandaa kwa ulimwengu wa kazi.Somo hili litampa mwanafunzi hamasa ya kumudu na kufurahia lugha na fasihi kwa kuzihusisha na tajiriba na mazingira yake. Hali kadhalika, litampa mwanafunzi maarifa ya kijamii na kitamaduni. Mwanafunzi ataweza kujieleza na vilevile kupata fursa ya kutoa huduma kwa jamii.


Kufikia mwisho wa kiwango cha kati cha elimu mwanafunzi aweze:

  • kutumia ujuzi wa kusoma na kuandika, ujuzi wa kuhesabu na kufikiri kimantiki ifaavyo katika kujieleza
  • kuwasiliana kikamilifu katika miktadha mbalimbali
  • kudhihirisha ujuzi wa kijamii, pamoja na tunu za kiimani na kimaadili kwa ajili ya mahusiano mema
  • kutalii, kubadilisha, kusimamia na kutunza mazingira ifaavyo kwa ajili ya ujifunzaji na maendeleo endelevu
  • kufanya usafi, kufuata kanuni zifaazo za usafi na lishe bora ili kuimarisha afya.
  • kudhihirisha mienendo ya kimaadili na kuonyesha uraia mwema kama wajibu wa kiraia
  • kuonyesha ridhaa kwa mirathi mingi na tofauti ya kitamaduni nchini ili kuleta mshikamano wa kimahusiano
  • kudhibiti masuala mtambuko katika jamii ifaavyo
  • kutumia ujuzi wa kidijitali ifaavyo kwa madhumuni ya mawasiliano na ujifunzaji.


  • Mtaala huu umepangwa kwa kuzingatia masuala makuu (Themes). Masuala haya yanatokana na masuala mtambuko (PCIs).
  • Masuala hayo makuu yanatumika kama kigezo cha kukuza stadi za lugha.
  • Msamiati unafunzwa kimuktadha. Haufunzwi kama mada.
  • Matumizi ya vifaa vya kidijitali kufanikisha ujifunzaji.
  • Kushirikisha wanafunzi katika shughuli za kijamii zinazochangia ujifunzaji.
Mada  Mada Ndogo  
1). Kusikiliza na Kuzungumza  Kusikiliza na Kujibu: Mazungumzo  Kusikiliza kwa Kina: Kutamka silabi na maneno Tanzu za Fasihi Nyimbo za Watoto na BembeleziMazungumzo Mahususi: Maamkuzi na MaaganoKusikiliza kwa Kufasiri: MatiniKusikiliza kwa Ufahamu Mazungumzo ya Kupasha Habari  
Kusikiliza na KuzungumzaNyimbo za Kazi na za DiniKuzungumza kwa kuambatanisha na vitendo Kusikiliza kwa MakiniNyimbo: Wahusika na Matumizi ya Lugha katika NyimboKusikiliza Habari na Kujibu  
2). Kusoma  Kusoma kwa Ufahamu  Kusoma kwa Mapana – Matini ya kujichagulia, Kusoma Kidijitali Kusoma kwa SautiKusoma kwa Kina: Novela  
3). Kuandika  Viakifishi – Herufi kubwa, Kikomo, Kiulizi na Koma Insha ya Kiuamilifu – Barua ya kirafiki, Barua ya kuomba msamaha, BaruapepeInsha za Kubuni – Masimulizi, MaelezoUfupisho Hotuba ya Kupasha HabariKuandika Insha ya Maelekezo  
4). Sarufi  Aina za maneno- Nyakati na Hali mbalimbali Ngeli na Upatanisho wa Kisarufi.Vinyume vya ManenoMnyambuliko wa VitenziAina za SentensiUkanushaji kwa Kuzingatia Nyakati Udogo na Ukubwa wa NominoUsemi Halisi na Usemi wa Taarifa  

This is paragraph 2 for posts without the target word.

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