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Resources in Kenya

  • A resource is something that we can use to create wealth. Kenya has many natural resources such as land, minerals, water and forests.
  • Economic activity – is what one does with the resources to make money or wealth.
  • These resources can be used for the benefit of the people. When people use resources to make money, we say they are carrying out economic activities.
  • We use land in growing crops like tea, coffee, vegetables and also keep animals like sheep, carmels and goats.
  • Minerals are valuable substances that are naturally found on earth. Minerals found in Kenya include: soda sh, limestone, salt, diatomite and petroleum.
  • We use water to rear fish. Fish found in Kenya include Tilapia and mud fish. Water is also used to water crops and animals as well as in industries.
  • Forests act as homes for wild animals which attract tourists to our country.

Caring for resources found In Kenya

We care for resources in Kenya through the following ways:

  • Planting new trees when we cut old ones
  • Adding manure and planting cover crops to take care of soil.
  • Keeping water sources clean.
  • Using minerals wisely
  • Protecting forests by not lighting fires and destroying them.



This is the growing of crops and keeping animals.

Farming methods:

Subsistence farming – it is a type of farming whereby farmers grow crops for use at home.

Characteristics of subsistence farming

  • Farmers grow crops and keep animals mainly for home use


  • The farms are divided into small portions
  • Farmers use simple tools such as hoes, ox ploughs and pangas to do cultivation.
  • Farmers grow crops such as maize, beans, millet, cassava, yams and arrowroots in small quantities.
  • Animal waste is used as manure
  • Family labour is used
  • A few animals such as cows, sheep, goats and chicken are kept.


Small scale farming

Is the type of farming whereby the farmer grows crops and keeps livestock on small pieces of land.


Characteristics of small scale farming

  • It is practical in areas which are densely populated. The land available for farming is limited.
  • It is practised in areas which have fertile soil and which receive enough and reliable rainfall.
  • Improved methods of farming such as rotation, application of fertilizer and spraying are used.
  • Farmers plant crops and keep animals for food and also for sale.
  • Family labour is used by farmers.
  • Food crops and cash crops such as coffee, tea,sugarcane, pyrethrum, fruits, vegetables and flowers.

Importance of farming

  • It’s a sources of income for farmers
  • It’s a source of raw materials for industries
  • Source of food for many people
  • Promotes better standards of living
  • Earns revenue for the government
  • Promotes proper use of land.



This refers to the keeping of cattle for the production of milk and milk products. It can be carried out on a small and large scale.

The following factors favour dairy farming in Kenya:


  • Cool temperatures, which discourages breeding of ticks
  • High and reliable rainfall to enable pastures to grow.
  • Good transport system to ensure quick transportation of milk
  • Enough land to grow grass to feed the cattle.
  • Plenty of water for animals in order to produce enough milk.
  • Veterinary services to give advice to farmers and treat animals when they are sick.
  • A large market to buy dairy products which have to be sold quickly. Areas where dairy farming is mainly practised include Meru, Embu, Kirinyaga, Murang’a, Nakuru, Nyandarua, Laikipia, Nyeri, Kiambu, Kisii, Nyamira, Nandi, Bungoma, Uasin Gishu and Trans-Nzoia counties.
  • Dairy products include: Milk, cheese, yoghurt, ghee, butter and cream.


Benefits of dairy farming

  • Improves the living standards of people
  • Provides people with milk and other milk products such as yoghurt.
  • Farmers can earn income when they sell milk
  • It’s a source of employment
  • Government gets revenue from milk exports
  • Milk is a source of protein and thus it improves our health
  • Hides and skins are used in the leather industry to make shoes and belts.

Challenges facing dairy farming in Kenya

Dairy farming is very expensive to practise and needs a lot of money.

  • Lack of enough capital
  • Lack of enough storage and cooling facilities to store milk
  • Poor means of transport because the roads are damaged
  • Lack of adequate market for milk
  • Delay of payment of farmers by the buyers
  • Lack of enough pasture during the dry period
  • High cost of commercial feeds.
  • Competition from cheap imported dairy products.



  • Horticulture is the growing of flowers, fruits and vegetables.
  • Horticulture farming is done in green houses under natural conditions e.g. flowers grown in Kenya are: Roses, lilies, hibiscus, carnations and orchids
  • Fruits grown in Kenya are: Oranges, grapes, lemons, mangoes and pineapples.
  • Vegetables grown in Kenya include: onions, tomatoes, cabbages, carrots and sukuma wiki (kale) among others
  • It is mainly practised in the following areas:
  • Mount elgon
  • Kitale
  • Cherangany hills
  • Mois Bridge
  • Nyahururu
  • Taveta
  • Naivasha
  • Ngong
  • Kisii
  • Embu
  • Eldoret
  • nairobi
  • Naivasha is the main horticultural growing area in Kenya. Contribution of horticulture to the Economy of Kenya
  • It earns the country foreign exchange when they are exported.
  • Improves living standards when farmers get their money.
  • It’s a source of employment. People are employed to work in farms.
  • They are a major source of food for the people of Kenya
  • Some horticultural crops are used as raw materials in industries.



  • Minerals are valuable substances that are naturally found on earth or underneath.
    • Mining refers to the process of removing minerals from the rocks in the ground.
    • Major minerals found in kenya include:
  • Soda ash – mined at Lake Magadi
  • Diatomite – mined at Kariandusi near Gilgil.
  • Limestone – mined at Athi River near Nairobi and Bamburi in Mombasa.
  • Salt – mined in Lake Magadi and also along the coast at Malindi and Ngomeni.
  • Petroleum – mined in Turkana county.

Importance of minerals in our country.

  • They earn our country foreign exchange when they are exported.
  • They are important in the construction industry e.g cement mixed with sand.
  • Different minerals are used as raw materials in industries that manufacture different products such as cement, glass, soap and chemicals.
  • Some minerals are used in our homes to add taste to our food e.g. salt.

Problems facing mining in Kenya

  • Poor transport system
  • Lack of skilled labour
  • Insecurity in the mining areas
  • Collapsing of mines which causes death or injury to the miners.
  • Inadequate capital.

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  • Fishing refers to the harvesting of fish from water for use directly as food at home or for sale in the market.
  • Fishing can be done in lakes, oceans, rivers or ponds.
  • A fishing ground is an area where fishing is carried out.



  • Inland fishing is carried out in freshwater bodies like lakes, rivers and fish farms (ponds) located on the main inland fishing grounds in Kenya
    • Lakes: Victoria, Turkana, Naivasha, Jipe and Baringo.
    • Rivers: Tana, Yala, Sagana, Nzoia and Nyando.
    • Dams: Masinga and Kiambere.
    • Fish farms: Naromoru, Nanyuki, Borabu, Bamburi and Aruba.

●     Methods of inland fishing include:

  1. Harpooning or spear method. – this is mostly done in clear water. Fishermen catch fish by spearing them.

A spear is aimed at the fish in the water. It is a method used in catching a few fish for home use.

  • Net drifting – a net is placed vertically in a lake. The net is supported by floats at the top and has weights at the bottom. Fish swim into the net and get trapped and cannot move.
  • Lamp attraction method – lamps are lit in boats over the water surface to attract fish at night. As the fish move towards the light, they are caught using baskets and nets. This method is commonly used in Lakes like Victoria, Turkana to catch small fish like Omena
  • Hook and line method– a string with a hook on the head is tied to a rod. A bait is then put on the hook, which is dipped into the water. The bait could be a piece of meat or an insect. The fish get attracted to the bait and are caught by the hook. Only one fish is caught at a time.
  • Use of baskets – a conical-shaped basket is pushed into the river where the water flows very fast. After some time, the basket is removed from the water with whatever may have got in. this method is used in rivers and near banks of lakes


Contribution of fishing to the economy of kenya

  • Tourist attraction – tourists come to kenya to do fishing as a sport and for enjoyment.
  • Fish is exported to earn the country foreign exchange.


  • Fish is a source of food e.g. source of protein.
  • Fishing is a source of employment for many e.g. in industries that process fish, fish farms.
  • It’s a source of income- selling fish earns fishermen income thus improving their living standards.
  • Fish is a source of medicine – fish contains the cod liver that is used as medicine.
  • Fishing has led to the growth of other dependent industries that make fertilizers, animal feeds and fish processing.

Wildlife and Tourism in Kenya National park and Game reserve

  • A national park is a wildlife protection area controlled directly by the national government through the Kenya wildlife service. In national parks people are not allowed to settle.
  • A game reserve is a wildlife protection area managed by the local county government. In game reserves, people are allowed to live and graze their cattle.

Locating National Parks and Game reserves in Kenya (map)

Importance of wildlife in our country

  • Wildlife is an important natural resource in kenya. The following are some reasons why wildlife is important:
    • It is a major tourist attraction in kenya. National parks and game reserves have rare kinds of animals which tourists pay to see. The government gets revenue from the tourists.
    • It creates job opportunities for many people. Some people are employed to work in national parks and game reserves .

others are employed as tour guides or workers in hotels.

  • It helps us to make good use of unproductive lands. Game parks and reserves are located in areas which cannot support domestic animals and crops.

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  • Some wild animals are eaten as food. This happens when the population of wild animals is high. E.g. gazelles, crocodiles, giraffes,zebras and impalas.
    • It promotes cultural exchange. When tourists interact with Kenyans, they exchange ideas, beliefs and cultural values and practices.
    • It is a national heritage and it contributes to the beauty of the land.
    • It promotes development of transport and communication facilities in Kenya. Roads leading to game parks and reserves have been improved.
    • Some wild animals have medicinal value and are used in the manufacture of medicine.

Tourists attractions in Kenya

  • A tourist is someone who travels to various places for leisure or enjoyment.
  • Tourism is the practice of offering services to tourists with the intention of making money.
  • Tourist attractions are things that tourists come to see or the places they visit.
  • The main tourist attractions in Kenya are:
    • Wildlife- this is the main tourist attraction. Tourists come to see animals such as the big five and flamingos in Lake Nakuru.
    • Historic built environments – such as Fort Jesus, Gedi Ruins and the Nairobi National Museum.
    • Sandy coastal beaches- tourists visit the beaches to relax and sunbathe.
    • Culture- Kenya has varied and unique cultures. These include dances, artefacts, ways of dressing and shelters.
    • Warm climate – Kenya experiences a warm climate most of the year. This attracts tourists when it is cold in their countries.
    • Sports – some sports such as mountain climbing, sport fishing and motor vehicle rallies attract tourists.


  • Conference facilities – Kenya has modern conference facilities such as Kenya International Conventional Centre (KICC) , UNEP headquarters and several five-star hotels.
    • Beautiful scenery – this includes the Great Rift valley, the hot water springs at Olkaria and the snow peaks of Mount Kenya

Contribution of Tourism to the economy of Kenya

  • Tourism contributes to the economy of Kenya in the following ways:
  • It is a source of foreign exchange
  • It creates employment for Kenyans
  • Tourists bring new ideas when they visit our country
  • Hotels where tourists stay promote the growth of agriculture in those areas. They create a market for crops grown by farmers.
  • It leads to growth of urban centres. For example, Narok town has grown due to the presence of Maasai Mara Game reserve.
  • It provides a market for locally made items such as baskets and ornaments.


Ways of promoting tourism in Kenya

  • Ensuring safety and security of tourists.
  • Constructing electric fences around game parks and reserves to prevent human wildlife conflicts.
  • Conserving all the natural forests and planting more trees to sustain the wild animals.
  • Establishing anti-poaching units in all game parks and game reserves.
  • Charging affordable fees at all tourist attractions.
  • Building modern hotels and lodges for tourists.
  • Ensuring that roads to tourist attraction sites are well maintained.



Modern forms of transport in Kenya

  • Transport is the movement of people or goods from one place to another.
  • There are various forms of transport used in Kenya.these are: road, railways, water, air and pipeline.


  • Road transport is the oldest and most common form of transport. People and goods are transported using cars, bicycles, buses, matatus,motorbikes, lorries and trailers.
  • Water transport involves the movement of goods and people over water. It is the most suitable form of transportation for bulky goods. However it is slow.
  • Railway transport involves the movement of people and goods on a railway line.
  • Air transport involves the movement of people and goods using aircraft. It is the fastest and most expensive form of transport.
  • Pipeline transport is mainly used to transport water,oil and gases.

Causes of road accidents in Kenya

  • Ignorance of traffic rules and road signs
  • Driving beyond the speed limit
  • Driving vehicles that are not in good condition
  • Overloading of goods and passengers
  • Driving under the influence of alcohol or harmful drugs
  • Poor state of roads

Ways of reducing road accidents in Kenya

  • Educating drivers and other road users on the proper use of roads
  • Constructing footbridges, tunnels and pedestrian paths
  • Enforcing traffic rules to stop driving beyond the speed limit. Using speed governors on public service vehicles to control their speed.
  • Constructing speed bumps on roads
  • Placing correct road signs at the right places along the roads
  • Punishing and penalising drivers who do not obey traffic rules
  • Inspecting vehicles regularly to ensure that they are roadworthy.
  • Not using mobile phones when driving.

Road signs and their meanings (pic pg. 120)

Ways of observing road safety in Kenya

Observe road signs on your way.


At pedestrian crossing, look left, right and again then cross when the road is clear.

Fasten your seat belts when in a moving vehicle

Do not play near the roads

Always use sidewalks.

Communication in Kenya Modern means of communication.

  • Communication is the sending or receiving of information. Examples of modern means of communication in Kenya include:
  • Mobile phones and telephones – this is the fastest and most reliable way of sending and receiving messages. It can be used to send both written and spoken messages.
  • Magazines, newspapers, journals – they are produced either daily, weekly or monthly. They report information about events happening in the country and around the world. They report on politics, business, sports and other happenings.
  • Radio – this method sends messages to many people at the same time. These messages are aired in English, Kiswahili and local languages.
  • Television – this is sending messages using visual aids and sending to many at once.
  • Internet – this involves sending of emails using electronic means among others like video conferencing.
  • Postal services – this is the delivery of written messages in the form of letters and parcels from one place to another. This service is offered through post offices.
  • Courier services – this is sending and receiving of letters and parcels to people living far away . In this service, the parcels are delivered to the owners personally. It is fast and reliable


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