A country’s curriculum ought to enhance the attainment of the national goals of education.
This is essential to ensure that the curriculum addresses the needs of a nation.
Rationale for Curriculum Reforms in Kenya
The following activities informed the change of the curriculum.
Task Force Report on The Re-alignment of The Education Sector to Vision 2030 and Constitution 2010: made the following recommendations:
– Competency based curriculum.
– Flexible education pathways (at senior school level) for identifying and nurturing individual learner’s potential to produce intellectually, emotionally and physically balanced citizens.
– A national learning assessment system National cohesion and their integration into the curriculum.
– Introduction of national values and national cohesion and their integration into the curriculum.
Curriculum Reform in Kenya-Constitution of Kenya(2010)
The constitution is the overall blue print that takes charge of the country in all aspects. The following articles are key to informing the CBC.
• Article 53 (1) (b) states; “Every child has a right to free and compulsory basic education”
• Article 10; National Values and Principles of Governance
• Chapters 6; Leadership and Integrity
• Promoting Kiswahili (national and official language) and English as an official language.
• Emphasise on teaching and learning of KSL and Braille.
• Developing and promoting the use of indigenous languages.
• Emphasis on communication formats and technologies accessible to persons with disabilities.
The Kenya Vision 2030
Kenya Vision 2030 and Sessional Paper No. 2 of 2015 put a strong emphasis on the importance of science, technology and innovation but the current curriculum does not provide deliberate policies, appropriate pedagogical approaches and sufficient resources to lay a strong foundation for the development of these skills.
• In addition innovative, vocational and technical skills considered important for meeting the demand for skilled labour and the country’s goal of industrialization are not well catered for in the mainstream curriculum.
Summative Evaluation of the 8-4-4 System of Education, 2009
The Summative Evaluation of the Curriculum’ (KIE, 2009), indicated that the curriculum content and its implementation was academic and examination oriented.
• In addition to curriculum overload, most schools were not adequately provided with equipped workshops to facilitate the learning of practical skills and teachers were not sufficiently trained. In summary, this is what the summative evaluation of the 8-4-4 system of education, 2009 found:
– Academic and examination oriented. Very little use of formative assessment (assessment for learning). Assessment was limited to summative assessment (assessment of learning).
– Did not provide flexible education pathways for identifying and nurturing aptitudes, talents and interests of learners early enough in order to prepare them for the world of work, career progression and sustainable development.
– Skills gaps identified
– agricultural, entrepreneurial, vocational and technical skills, innovation and creativity and ICT.
Re-alignment to EAC Curriculum Harmonization Framework
• It is important to note that the Eastern African states drew up, ‘A Framework on Harmonization of Curricula,Structure and Examinations in the EAC’ (EAC, 2012).
• As a member of the East African Community (EAC), Kenya had an obligation to reform the basic Education curricula, structure and examination system to align to
the EAC framework in order to ease mutual recognition
of certificates across the region.
• According to UNESCO International Bureau of Education (IBE), a curriculum review should be done after every 5 years.
• Sustainable Development Goal No 4 (Ensuring quality education)
• Benchmarking With Best International Practices
• 21st Century Learning Skills and Approaches
BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK
The basic education curriculum framework vision and mission are supported by three important pillars:-
- Values based education
- Guiding principles
- Theoretical approaches
• Values are defined as standards that guide an individual on how to respond or behave in a given circumstance.
• Our values influence how we feel, act and make choices in life.
• The teaching of values will facilitate the achievement of the curriculum reforms’ vision, particularly with respect to developing ethical citizens.
• The thrust of this will be to nurture learners who do the right thing because it is the right thing to do. Students will be guided to learn
• A theory is an abstract general explanation of observations or a subject under study that can be relied upon to provide guidance for practice.
• It attempts to predict behaviour or reach a reasonable and general set of explanations for an underlying issue.
• The Basic Education Curriculum Framework is underpinned by several theories:
i. Vygotsky’s social-cultural development theory, the primary focus of which is on supporting students through scaffolding the learning experiences.
ii. Piaget’s cognitive development theory, which will mainly provide the alignment between the maturational development of the child and how learning should be organized.
iii. Bruner’s cognitive development theory, which emphasises the importance of organizing learning in a meaningful way to build from the known to the unknown.
iv. John Hattie’s Visible Learning that emphasises the role of the teacher in terms of the impact the approaches adopted may have on students’ learning.
v. Dewey’s social constructivism that focuses on the need to adopt learner centred approaches in curriculum design and delivery
The Framework is based on the following guiding principles:
iii. Diversity and Inclusion
iv. Differentiated Curriculum and Learning
v. Parental Empowerment and Engagement
vi. Community Service Learning