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JSS Professional Documents


       Overview Financing of JSS

Finance is the process of raising and management of money. It includes such activities as sourcing of funds, expenditure, investing, borrowing, lending, saving, planning, budgeting, accounting, reporting, auditing and oversight of finance systems. With reference to the Constitutional principles guiding the framework of public finance in Kenya, Article 201 (a); the JSS leadership SHALL exercise openness and accountability, including in participation in financial matters, Public money SHALL be utilised in a prudent and responsible way (Article 201 (a)); financial management SHALL be responsible (Article (e)); and, fiscal reporting SHALL be clear.

Schools Operations and Maintenance Public JSSs SHALL be financed through

  • Capitation Grants; the Government of Kenya (GoK) SHALL provide capitation grants to JSS learners who are registered in NEMIS ONLY.
  • Parents/ Guardians Contributions; parents SHALL provide for meals, uniform and learners’ upkeep.

       School Planning

The JSS leadership SHALL develop and document the school Strategic Plans and Annual Work Plans. These are essential ingredients as they procedurally chart the way the school is to be funded for its operations and development through the budget.

       Resource Mobilisation in Junior Secondary

The JSS leadership and Management Committees SHALL mobilise resources in the form of facilities, equipment, machines, foodstuff, skills, reputation, technology, abilities and legal protection that are required to stimulate and grow their institutions, and motivate teachers and students to perform and excel in their competencies.

Additional resources for JSS MAY be obtained from:

  • Grants from National Government Constituency Development Fund (NGCDF).
  • Bursaries from County Governments.
  • Donations from corporate businesses and NGOs.
  • Voluntary contributions from parents and alumni .
  • Donations/gifts from philanthropists and communities.

         Budgeting in Junior Secondary

The JSS leadership and Management Committees SHALL prepare and approve a budget statement before commencement of the School Financial Year (see Annex 6, for proposed budget format). The budget statement will show the estimated incomes/funds against the projected expenditure. The budget statement ensures that the resource allocation and usage match with the school’s priorities.  In this regard, the JSS leadership SHALL prepare at least two forms of budgets; (i) Operational or recurrent budget, that comprises expected capitation for tuition, operations, fees from parents, contributions, as well as proceeds from income generating activities against the projected expenses on the same account or vote heads

  • Operational or recurrent budget, that comprises expected capitation for tuition, operations, fees from parents, contributions, as well as proceeds from income generating activities against the projected expenses on the same account or vote heads
  • Infrastructure or school improvement budget that details capitation funds expected and /or available for infrastructure projects versus the estimated cost of the projects


The JSS Managemet Commiittee SHALL approve the Current/operational budget while the infrastructure budget SHALL be approved by both the JSS Managemet Commiittee and Directorate of Secondary Education at the MoE, RDEs and CDEs.

Procurement of Goods, Services and Works in Junior Secondary

  • The JSS leadership SHALL prepare a procurement plan, establish adhoc procurement committees and apply the procurement methods stipulated in the Public Procurement and Assets Disposal (PPADA) Act (2015). The JSS leadership is  also expected to be conversant with public procurement regulations, including the offences and sanctions applicable upon contravention and disregard of the procurement procedures and proceedings as stated in law. 
  • The JSS leadership SHALL also form School Infrastructural Committees (SIC) to guide in identification of infrastructural project(s) for implementation.

Accounting for School Finances and Reporting

The Public Finance Management (PFM Act, 2012), Basic Education Act (2013), and the TSC Act (2012), places fiduciary responsibility on heads of public JSSs, to account and report on the stewardship of resources entrusted to them by Government and other stakeholders. In accounting for school resources, the JSS leadership SHALL;

Maintain Books of Accounts in Junior Secondary

For purposes of accounting for funds, institutions will maintain among others, the following books of accounts and records:

  • Receipt Books
  • Fees Registers/Ledger,
  • Payment Vouchers
  • Cashbooks
  • Suppliers Register/Ledger
  • Imprest Register
  • Income Generating Activities Records/Ledgers

(vii) Bank Reconciliation Statement (viii) General Ledger (x)     Trial Balances.

       School Bank Accounts in Junior Secondary

The JSS leadership SHALL open and operate the following bank accounts:

  1. Tuition Bank Account: To be used for deposit of tuition capitation grants and payments of expenses related to teaching and learning materials. A separate cashbook for the account shall be maintained.
  2. Operations Bank Account: To be used for deposit of capitation funds for school operations and payment of related expenses. A separate cashbook for the account shall be maintained.
  3. Infrastructure Funds Bank Account: To be used for deposit of infrastructure capitation funds and payment of expenses related to infrastructure improvements. A separate cashbook shall be maintained for the account.
  4. School Fund Bank Account: To be used for deposit of funds from parents’ contributions for students’ upkeep and for payment of related expenses. A separate cashbook shall be   maintained for the account.
  5. Savings Bank Account: Schools may open and operate savings bank accounts for holding funds awaiting to be used at a later date.
  6. NGCDF/Donor Funded Projects Bank Account: Schools will be required to open bank accounts to deposit funds from NGCDF or Donors in line with contracts or project covenant agreements, and for payment of related project expenses.

       Accounting for School Assets or Stores in Junior Secondary

The JSS leadership SHALL put in place accountable mechanisms for stores receipts, recording, storing, issuance and usage of goods. Schools should maintain the following stores/assets records:

  • Consumable Stores Ledger (S1).
  • Permanent Stores Ledger (S2). 
  • Fixed Assets Registers.
  • Inventory Registers or Records.
  • Asset Movement Registers.
  • Textbook Registers.
  • Assets Maintenance Register/Records.
  • Risk Register.
  • Register of Obsolete/ Unserviceable and surplus Stores (x.)        Register of Lost Assets.

      (xi) Annual Financial Reporting.

         Annual Financial Reports in Junior Secondary

The JSSs leadership SHALL at the end of each School Financial Year (30th June), prepare annual financial statements and reports, based on IPSAS financial reporting template prescribed and approved by the Public Sector Accounting Standards Board.  These SHALL comprise:

  • Receipts and payments
  • Statement of financial assets and liabilities
  • Statement of cash flows
  • Statement of budget execution
  • Statement of school performance in including both financial and non-financial information.

Auditing of JSSs

  • The JSS leadership SHALL acquaint itself and be conversant with audit and the legal framework for auditing of schools.
  • Both internal and external audit procedures will be applied to the JSSs. (c)      School based (internal) audit SHALL be:
    • Executed by the Directorate of School’s Audit Services at the MoE in line with the PFM Act (2012) and Basic Education Act (2013).
    • Regular and continual, which will provide feedback to CS-Education, PS-State Department for Basic Education, TSC, Director in charge of JSS, RDEs, CDEs and the JSS leadership for effective oversight and management of public funds and to safeguard school accounts and assets.

(d) External audit of JSSs SHALL be:

  • Executed by the Office of the Auditor-General, who reports to Parliament in line with the PPAD Act (2015).
  • Conducted periodically with a view to providing feedback to Parliament for the necessary parliamentary oversight as enshrined in the Constitution of Kenya, 2010.

  Handing and Taking Over in Junior Secondary

  • The JSS leadership SHALL be conversant with regulations governing handing/taking over as stipulated in the PFM Act (2012), Section 11 and the Basic Education Regulations (2015).
  • The accountability of handing over/taking over SHALL be deemed complete ONLY when an officer hands over all the accounting and finance records that were in his or her possession to the officer taking over his or her duties in the presence of and witnessed by the supervisor.


Learner Support Programmes in Junior Secondary-JSS

This is paragraph 2 for posts without the target word.

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