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Competency-Based Assessments (CBA) are examinations done under the Competency-Based Curriculum (CBC). There are three types of assessment in CBC in Kenya

  • Classroom assessment: Tools for this type of assessment are developed by the teacher and the exams are done at the classroom level (not national).
  • School-based assessment:  This is a type of assessment that is done by students from Grade 4 to 12. Tools for this type of assessment are developed by KNEC but the exams do not have national rankings. Teachers are required to download the assessment tools from the KNEC CBA portal.
  • Summative assessment: This is like KCPE and KCSE examinations. Summative assessment is done by students and is national and may involve students or schools performance ranking.

Types of assessment done under CBC before transition to the next level of studies

grade 3: School-based assessment- it is national but not used for placement

Grade 6: summative assessment-national and used for placement

Grade 9: summative assessment-national and used for placement

Grade 12: summative assessment-national and used for placement

CBC Grade Transition

  • PP2 to Grade 1 (Pre-Primary to Lower Primary): Learners have to sit for an exam developed by the teacher (internally) before they transition to grades 1, 2, and 3 (Lower Primary).
  • Grade 3 to Grade 4 (Lower Primary to Upper Primary): Learners sit for school-based national assessment before transitioning to Grade 4, 5, and 6 (upper primary)
  • Grade 6 to Grade 7 (Upper Primary to Lower Secondary): Learners do a school-based assessment which accounts for 60% (in grades 4, 5, 6), and summative assessment (national exams) at the end of Grade 6 which accounts for 40% before transitioning to lower secondary.
  • Grade 9 to Grade 10 (Lower Secondary to Senior School): Learners sit for junior secondary summative assessment (JSS) at the end of grade 9 and the results will be used for placement to grade 10 (senior secondary)

CBC Assessment Tools and Methods

Assessment tools and methods used in CBC include tests, rubrics, questions, and answers, journals, portfolios, oral or aural questions, checklists, questionnaires, etc.

Assessment results or records will be available at the KNEC portal for grade 3 to 12 students. A unique personal identification number (UPI) will be used to track the performance of the student up to the end of basic education (Grade 12). UPI number is provided through NEMIS portal registration or KNEC assessment number.

Transfer of students and CBC assessment records

If you want to transfer a student who is in Grade 3, 4, or 5, then the headteacher of the school you are leaving and joining should write release and acceptance letters respectively which you should present to the sub-county director of education for transfer. The sub-county director of education should use the KNEC CBA portal ( to transfer the student. Using this transfer method means that you will not lose your assessment records.

This is paragraph 2 for posts without the target word.

By Depa

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